Health effects of the IEHIAS
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Data on health status and outcome are collected in a range of ways and by a range of agencies, including GPs, hospitals, specialist registration systems and both routine surveys/censuses and ad hoc studies. Data are invariably collated and stored by national health ministries, which usually disseminate the data in a reelatively disaggregated form; in Europe, Eurostat, and globally, the World Health Organisation, collate and provide more aggregated statistics.
Standardisation of health data is now well-established, via use of the ICD codes. Most countries now apply ICD-10, though earlier versions are still used in some countries, and when time series data from earlier years are used changes in the ICD version may exist. Care is needed in these cases because of differences in the categorisation in the different versions.
A range of other uncertainties also occur with health data, either arising at source (i.e. during diagnosis) or during data reporting, collation and storage. These include:
- incomplete reporting of cases, due to non-referral to formal health agencies or due to inadequacies in the reporting systems;
- differences in diagnosis between different practitioners and countries;
- differential reporting and statistical treatment of multiple admissions and/or multiple causes of illness or mortality;
- different levels of spatial aggregation between different data sources and countries.
The table below lists some of the main sources of routinely maintained health data in Europe.
|Data set||Description||Mortality||Morbidity||Other||Coverage||Source/Provider||Further information|
|Eurostat: health statistics for the EU||Regional-scale statistics on mortality, morbidity, medication usage etc||X||X||Health care expenditure||EU member states||Eurostat||Factsheet|
|EDMB||European Detailed Mortality Database: data on mortality by cause of death||X||European countries||WHO||Factsheet|
|European HFA database||European Health for All Database: aggregated statistics on mortality and morbidity, and associated health indicators||X||X||European countries||WHO||Factsheet|
|CARE||Deaths and injuries due to road traffic accidents; spatially highly aggregated, but provides detailed breakdown by transport mode, age, gender etc||X||X||EU member states||European Commission, based on data from member states||Factsheet|
|IRTAD||International Road Traffic Accident Database: national statistics on road-traffic accidents and injuries, and associated traffic flows etc||X||X||Road length, usage etc||OECD member states||OECD||Factsheet|