# Helsinki energy production

## Question

What is the amount of energy produced (including distributed production) in Helsinki? Where is it produced (-> emissions)? Which processes are used in its production?

Energy production capacity in Helsinki. The different scenarios are based on Helsinki energy decision 2015.

This code is used to fetch the ovariables on this page for modelling.

 ```## This is code Op_en7311/answer on page [[Helsinki energy production]] library(OpasnetUtils) objects.latest("Op_en7311", code_name = "energyProcess") # [[Helsinki energy production]] objects.latest("Op_en7311", code_name = "plantParameters") # [[Helsinki energy production]] objects.latest("Op_en7311", code_name = "nondynsupply") # [[Helsinki energy production]] objects.latest("Op_en7311", code_name = "fuelShares") # [[Helsinki energy production]] objects.latest("Op_en7311", code_name = "emissionLocationsPerPlant") # [[Helsinki energy production]] #oprint(head(EvalOutput(energyProcess)@output)) #oprint(head(EvalOutput(plantParameters)@output)) #oprint(head(EvalOutput(nondynsupply)@output)) #oprint(head(EvalOutput(fuelShares)@output)) #oprint(head(EvalOutput(emissionLocationsPerPlant)@output)) cat("ovariables energyProcess, plantParameters, nondynsupply, fuelShares, and emissionLocationsPerPlant successfully fetched.\n") ```

## Rationale

This page contains data about the heat plants in Helsinki. It tells, how much and what type of energy a plant produces per unit of fuel, how much the plants cost and the locations of the power plant emissions. This data is then further used in the model.

Amount produced is determined largely by the energy balance in Helsinki and Helsinki energy consumption. The maximum energy produced and fuels used by of all Helen's power plants can be found here: https://www.helen.fi/kotitalouksille/neuvoa-ja-tietoa/tietoa-meista/energiantuotanto/voimalaitokset/

### Energy processes

Heat, power and cooling processes(MJ /MJ)
ObsPlantBurnerElectricityElectricity_taxedHeatCoolingCoalGasFuel oilBiofuelDescription
1Biofuel heat plantsLarge fluidized bed000.85-0.910000-1
2CHP diesel generatorsDiesel engine0.300.3-0.5000-10Efficiency not known well in practice
3Data center heatNone0-0.27 - -0.23100000Same as Neste without transport of heat
4Deep-drill heatNone0-0.4 - -0.1100000Experimental technology
5HanasaariLarge fluidized bed0.3100.600-1000Assume 91 % efficiency. Capacity: electricity 220 MW heat 420 MW Loss 64 MW
6Household air heat pumpsNone0-0.7 - -0.2100000The efficiency of heat pumps is largely dependent on outside air temperature, it's feasible for a household air heat pump to reach COP 5 at 10 °C and COP 1.5 at -25 °C.
7Household air conditioningNone0-0.7 - -0.2010000
8Household geothermal heatNone0-0.36 - -0.31100000Motiva 2014
9Katri Vala coolingNone0-0.36 - -0.31010000District cooling produced by absorption (?) heat pumps. Same as heat pumps for heating, Motiva 2014.
10Katri Vala heatNone0-0.36 - -0.31100000Heat from cleaned waste water and district heating network's returning water. Motiva 2014
11Kellosaari back-up plantLarge fluidized bed0.3 - 0.500000-10Only produces electric power
12Kymijoki River's plantsNone10000000Hydropower
13Loviisa nuclear heatNone0-0.4 - -0.1100000Assumes that for each MWh heat produced, 0.1-0.2 MWh electricity is lost in either production or when heat is pumped to Helsinki.
14Neste oil refinery heatNone0-0.31 - -0.27100000Motiva 2014
15Salmisaari A&BLarge fluidized bed0.3200.590-1000Capacity: electricity 160 MW heat 300 MW loss 46 MW
16Sea heat pumpNone0-0.36 - -0.31100000Motiva 2014
17Sea heat pump for coolingNone0-0.36 - -0.31010000Assuming the same as for heating
18Small-scale wood burningHousehold000.5 - 0.90000-1
19Small gas heat plantsLarge fluidized bed000.9100-100
20Small fuel oil heat plantsLarge fluidized bed000.91000-10
21Suvilahti power storageNone10000000
22Suvilahti solarNone10000000
23Vanhakaupunki museumNone10000000Hydropower
24Vuosaari ALarge fluidized bed0.45500.45500-100Capacity: electricity 160 MW heat 160 MW loss 30 MW
25Vuosaari BLarge fluidized bed0.500.4100-100Capacity: electricity 500 MW heat 424 MW loss 90 MW
26Vuosaari C biofuelLarge fluidized bed0.4700.440000-1
27Wind millsNone10000000

Notes about the data in the table:

• Household air heat pumps data from heat pump comparison[1]
• Household geothermal heat data from Energy Department of the United States: Geothermal Heat Pumps[2]
• Small-scale wood burning data from Energy Department of the United States: Wood and Pellet Heating[3]
• Loss of thermal energy through distribution is around 10 %. From Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate: Energy in Norway.[4]
• Sustainable Energy Technology at Work: Use of waste heat from refining industry, Sweden.[5]
• Chalmers University of Technology: Towards a Sustainable Oil Refinery, Pre-study for larger co-operation projects[6]
• CHP diesel generators are regular diesel generators, but they are located in apartment houses and operated centrally. This way, it is possible to produce electricity when needed and use the excess heat, instead of district heat, to warm up the hot water of the house.
• Motiva estimates for heat pumps processes and costs for heating:[7]
• Mechanical heat pumps usually have COP (coefficient of performance, thermal output energy per electric input energy needed) is 2.5 - 7.5.
• In district heating, mechanical heat pumps have typically COP around 3.
• Absorption heat pumps have COP typically 1.5 - 1.8. They do not use much electricity but they need either hot water or steam to operate. Therefore, they are not suitable for producing district heat from warm water with temperatures in the range of 25 - 30 °C (Neste) or 10-15 °C (sea heat).
• The report uses these values for energy prices (€/MWh): bought electricity 50, process steam 25, wood chip 20, district heating 40, own excess heat 0.
• The investment cost of a heat pump system (ominaiskustannus) in the cases described in this report were 0.47-0.73 M€/MWth for mechanical heat pumps and 0.072 - 0.102 M€/MWth for absorption heat pumps. These values do not include the pipelines needed, which may vary a lot; in these cases the pipeline costs were 0.1 - 2.5 times the cost of the heat pump.
• The energy efficiency is theoretically COP = Tout / (Tout - Tin), and the actual COP values are typically 65 - 75 % of that. If we assume that we want 95 °C district heat out, we get
• for sea heat pumps: COP = 368 K / (368 K - 283 K) = 4.3 ideally and in practice 2.8 - 3.2. Electricity needed per 1 MWh output: 0.31 - 0.36 MWh.
• Neste process heat: COP = 368 K / (368 K - 303 K) = 5.7 ideally and in practice 3.7 - 4.2. Electricity needed per 1 MWh output: 0.23 - 0.27 MWh (plus what is needed for pumping the heat for 25 km, say + 0.04 MWh)

 ```## This code is Op_en7311/energyProcess on page [[Helsinki energy production]] library(OpasnetUtils) energyProcess <- Ovariable("energyProcess", ddata = "Op_en7311", subset = "Heat, power and cooling processes") # Add Time index so we can make Time dependant decisions energyProcess@data <- merge(energyProcess@data, data.frame(Time = 1880:2080)) objects.store(energyProcess) cat("Ovariable energyProcess stored.\n") ```

### Plant specifications

These equations below aim to reflect the energy production facilities and capabilities. The min and max values tell about the range of energy production of the plant, and the cost values tell the costs of building and running the powerplant.

Note! Maintenance cost only contains costs that do not depend on activity. Operational cost contains costs that depend on activity but NOT fuel price; those are calculated separately based on energy produced.

Plant parameters(MW,MW,M€,M€ /a,€ /MWh)
ObsYears_activePlantMinMaxInvestment costManagement costOperation costDescription
12017-2070Biofuel heat plants0100-300360104-12biofuels (pellets, wood chips and possibly biochar)
22025-2070CHP diesel generators0144114411Assuming all of Helsinki's apartment houses were fitted with 100 kW generators.
32025-2080Deep-drill heat0300300-9009.640Investment cost from ETSAP
41965-2040Hanasaari064009.6895% coal, 5% pellets. Assume cost of running and maintenance in coal plants 15€/kW (Sähköenergian kustannusrakenne)
52010-2060Household air heat pumps0112200-300105Assuming all of Helsinki's detached and row houses were fitted with air heat pumps
62010-2060Household air conditioning067150-200105
72016-2060Household geothermal heat0335380-450105Assuming all of Helsinki's detached and row houses were fitted with geothermal heat pumps
82020-2035Household solar0105220-25055Assuming 700000 m2 suitable for solar panels.
92010-2070Katri Vala cooling0600103waste water. Max from Helen
102005-2065Katri Vala heat0900103waste water. Max from Helen
111980-2050Kellosaari back-up plant012001020oil
121980-2070Kymijoki River's plants0600101-4hydropower
132022-2080Loviisa nuclear heat01800-2600400-4000105Investment cost includes energy tunnel (double of Neste) but NOT building cost of plant. Some estimate for typical district heat pipes on ground is 2 M€/km; this is clearly a minimum for this project.
142020-2060Neste oil refinery heat0300200-500105
151975-2050Salmisaari A&B050607.6895% coal, 5% pellets
162020-2070Sea heat pump0225280104
172020-2070Sea heat pump for cooling0225280104
181980-2070Small-scale wood burning7878010Assuming 70% of Helsinki's detached and row houses have a working fireplace. Operation costs for consumer assumed to be 0.
191980-2070Small gas heat plants0600055
201980-2070Small fuel oil heat plants01600055
212015-2040Suvilahti power storage-1.21.2100105electricity storage 0.6 MWh
222013-2070Suvilahti solar00.340105
231880-2070Vanhakaupunki museum00.20100water
241991-2070Vuosaari A0320055natural gas
251998-2070Vuosaari B0924055natural gas
262018-2070Vuosaari C biofuel0133165010980-100% biofuels, rest coal
272017-2060Wind mills010120.07-0.157-13upper limit from EWEA-report: The economics of wind energy
282016-2070Data center heat015070.5-109.550Investment cost 0.47-0.73 M€/MWth based on Motiva 2014. Cooling is needed anyway, so assumes operation costs to be 0.

Notes:

• Neste excess heat in Opasnet
• Helens’s windpower [8]
• Suvilahti solar [9]
• Loviisan sanomat: Loviisan ydinvoimalan tehoja aiotaan nostaa 52 megawattia. [10]
• Loviisa 3 periaatepäätös [11]
• Sähköenergian kustannusrakenne [12]
• European Wind Energy Association (EWEA): The economics of wind energy [13]
• Operation costs (€/MWh) of nuclear, wind, coal, and wood based biomass [14]
• Sea heat capacity and cost estimated using case Drammen. [15] [16][17]
• Cost of household solar estimated using [1] and [2]
• Deep drill heat
• Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP)[18]
• Small heat plants' capacities [19]

 ```## This code is Op_en7311/plantParameters on page [[Helsinki energy production]] library(OpasnetUtils) # [[Helsinki energy production]] plantParameters <- Ovariable("plantParameters", ddata = "Op_en7311", subset = "Plant parameters") a <- unique(plantParameters@data[c("Plant", "Years_active")]) b <- strsplit(as.character(a\$Years_active), split = "-") out <- data.frame() for(i in 1:nrow(a)) { out <- rbind(out, data.frame( a[i , "Plant", drop = FALSE], Time = as.numeric(b[[i]][1]):as.numeric(b[[i]][2]), Matched = 1 ) ) } require(plyr) plantParameters@data <- merge(plantParameters@data, data.frame(Time = 1880:2080))#min(out\$Time):max(out\$Time))) plantParameters@data <- join(plantParameters@data, out, type = "left") plantParameters@data\$Years_active <- NULL plantParameters@data\$plantParametersResult[ is.na(plantParameters@data\$Matched) & ( plantParameters@data\$Parameter == "Max" | plantParameters@data\$Parameter == "Min" ) ] <- 0 plantParameters@data\$Matched <- NULL objects.store(plantParameters) cat("Ovariable plantParameters stored.\n") ```

ObsPlantBurnerFuel201520252035204520552065
1Suvilahti solarNoneElectricity5510101010
2Wind millsNoneElectricity5510101010

 ```### This code is Op_en7311/nondynsupply on page [[Helsinki energy production]]. ### nondynsupply is about non-dynamic energy supply. In other words, it cannot be optimised based on need. library(OpasnetUtils) # [[Helsinki energy supply]] nondynsupply <- Ovariable("nondynsupply", ddata = "Op_en7311", subset = "Non-adjustable energy production") objects.store(nondynsupply) cat("Ovariable nondynsupply stored.\n") ```

### Fuel availability

Wood

The byproducts of forest industry make up the bulk of fuel wood, and its quantity is almost completely dependent of the production of the forest industry's main products. Therefore it makes sense to calculate the amount of fuel wood usable in the future using the predictions about the volume of forest industry's production in coming years.

For example, the maximum potential production of woodchips is calibrated so, that it will reach 25 TWh in year 2020, and it is expected slowly increase to 33 TWh by year 2050. The production potential for firewood (for small scale heating) is expected to remain about the same at just under 60 PJ. The import of wood fuels is estimated to be 3 TWh at most. [20]

### Fuel use by heating type

Helsinki-specific data about connections between Heating and fuel usage. Generic data should be taken from Energy balance. Because all Helsinki-specific data is given in the energyProcess table, this only contains dummy data.

Fuel use by heating type(-)
ObsHeatingBurnerFuelFractionDescription
1DummyNoneCoal0

This R code creates an ovariable for calculating the shares of different fuels used in heating processes.

 ``` ## This code is Op_en7311/fuelShares on page [[Helsinki energy production]] library(OpasnetUtils) fuelShares <- Ovariable("fuelShares", dependencies = data.frame( Name = "fuelSharesgeneric", Ident = "Op_en5141/fuelSharesgeneric" # [[Energy balance]] ), formula = function(...) { dat <- EvalOutput(Ovariable("dat", ddata = "Op_en7311.fuel_use_by_heating_type")) # [[Helsinki energy production]] colnames(dat@output) <- gsub("[ \\.]", "_", colnames(dat@output)) out <- combine(fuelSharesgeneric, dat, name = "fuelShares") out <- out * Ovariable(output = data.frame(Time = 1900:2080, Result = 1), marginal = c(TRUE, FALSE)) out <- unkeep(out, prevresults = TRUE, sources = TRUE) return(out) } ) objects.store(fuelShares) cat("Object fuelShares stored.\n") ```

Fuel data from HSY

### Emission locations

Emission locations per plant. The values of emission sites are based on locations of city areas.

Emission locations per plant(-)
ObsPlantEmission siteEmission heightDescription
1Biofuel heat plants010Low
2CHP diesel generators010Ground
3Deep-drill heat010
4Hanasaari010High
5Household air heat pumps010
6Household air conditioning010
7Household geothermal heat010
8Household solar010
9Katri Vala cooling010
10Katri Vala heat010
11Kellosaari back-up plant010High
12Kymijoki River's plants010
13Loviisa nuclear heat010
14Neste oil refinery heat010High
15Salmisaari A&B010High
16Sea heat pump010
17Sea heat pump for cooling010
18Small-scale wood burning010Ground
19Small gas heat plants010Low
20Small fuel oil heat plants010Low
21Suvilahti power storage010
22Suvilahti solar010
23Vanhakaupunki museum010High
24Vuosaari A010High
25Vuosaari B010High
26Vuosaari C biofuel010High
27Wind mills010
28Data center heat010
29UnidentifiedAt site of consumptionGround

This R code creates an ovariable for emission locations per plant.

 ```###### This code is Op_en7311/emissionLocationsPerPlant [[Helsinki energy production]] library(OpasnetUtils) emissionLocations <- Ovariable("emissionLocations", ddata = "Op_en7311", subset = "Emission locations per plant") colnames(emissionLocations@data) <- gsub("[ \\.]", "_", colnames(emissionLocations@data)) colnames(emissionLocations@data)[colnames(emissionLocations@data) == "emissionLocationsResult"] <- "Emission_height" emissionLocations@data\$emissionLocationsResult <- 1 objects.store(emissionLocations) cat("Ovariable emissionLocations stored.\n") ```

### Data not used

This data is not used in the model's calculations, but is important enough to be kept on the page.

Emission location and height by heating type. The values of emission sites are based on locations of city areas.

Emission locations(-)
ObsHeatingEmission_siteEmission_heightDummy
1District010High
2Electricity010High
3Geothermal010High
4OilAt site of consumptionGround
5WoodAt site of consumptionGround
6GasAt site of consumptionGround
7CoalAt site of consumptionGround

This code creates technical ovariables emissionLocations and heatingShares that are needed to run the Building model and its ovariables buildings and heatingEnergy.

 ``` ## This code is Op_en7311/emissionLocations [[Helsinki energy production]] library(OpasnetUtils) emissionLocations <- Ovariable("emissionLocations", ddata = "Op_en7311", subset = "Emission locations") colnames(emissionLocations@data) <- gsub("[ \\.]", "_", colnames(emissionLocations@data)) emissionLocations@data\$emissionLocationsResult <- 1 heatingShares <- 1 # This is already in the Basel data. objects.store(emissionLocations, heatingShares) cat("Objects emissionsLocations, heatingShares stored.\n") ```

Energy production of smaller heating plants
Plant Min (MW) Max (MW) Fuel Description
Hanasaari back up plant 0 280 heavy fuel oil
Salmisaari back up plant 0 120 heavy fuel oil
Vuosaari back up plant 0 120 light fuel oil
Lassila 0 420 heavy fuel oil and gas
Munkkisaari 0 235 heavy and light fuel oil
Myllypuro 0 240 light fuel oil
Patola 0 240 heavy fuel oil and gas
Ruskeasuo 0 272 heavy and light fuel oil
Alppila 0 180 light fuel oil
Jakomäki 0 62 heavy fuel oil
 Electricity 7145 District heat and steam 6807 District cooling 116

Helsinki energy decision 2015
In English
Assessment Main page | Helsinki energy decision options 2015
Helsinki data Building stock in Helsinki | Helsinki energy production | Helsinki energy consumption | Energy use of buildings | Emission factors for burning processes | Prices of fuels in heat production | External cost
Models Building model | Energy balance | Health impact assessment | Economic impacts
Related assessments Climate change policies in Helsinki | Climate change policies and health in Kuopio | Climate change policies in Basel
In Finnish
Yhteenveto Helsingin energiapäätös 2015 | Helsingin energiapäätöksen vaihtoehdot 2015 | Helsingin energiapäätökseen liittyviä arvoja | Helsingin energiapäätös 2015.pptx

## References

1. Scanoffice.fi: VTT:n testiraportit - Ilmalämpöpumppuvertailu. http://www.scanoffice.fi/fi/tuotteet/tuoteryhmat/ilmalampopumput/raportit-ja-sertifikaatit/vttn-testiraportit
2. Energy.gov: Geothermal heat pumps. U.S. department of energy. http://energy.gov/energysaver/geothermal-heat-pumps
3. Energy.gov: Wood and pellet heating. U.S. department of energy http://energy.gov/energysaver/wood-and-pellet-heating
4. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate: Energy in Norway, an brief annual presentation, 2009. http://www.nve.no/global/energi/analyser/energi%20i%20norge%20folder/energy%20in%20norway%202009%20edition.pdf
5. Sustainable Energy Technology at Work -project: Use of waste heat from refining industry, Sweden. Preem AB, H Samuelsson. http://www.setatwork.eu/database/products/R179.htm
6. Berntsson T, Persson Elmeroth L, Algehed J, Hektor E, Franck PÅ, Åsblad A, Johnsson F, Lyngfelt A, Gevert B, Richards T: Towards a Sustainable Oil Refinery - Pre-study for larger co-operation projects. Chalmers Energy Centre (CEC) Report 2008:1. Chalmers University of Technology. http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/69752.pdf
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10. Loviisan sanomat: Loviisan ydinvoimalan tehoja aiotaan nostaa 52 megawattia. 13.1.2012 http://www.loviisansanomat.net/lue.php?id=5361
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13. Krohn S (editor), Morthorst PE, Awerbuch S: The Economics of Wind Energy. European Wind Energy Association (EWEA). March 2009 [http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/reports/Economics_of_Wind_Energy.pdf
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20. Lehtilä A, Koljonen T, Airaksinen M, Tuominen P, Järvi T, Laurikko J, Similä L, Grandell L: Energiajärjestelmien kehityspolut kohti vähähiilistä yhteiskuntaa. Low Carbon Finland 2050 -platform. VTT. 2014. http://en.opasnet.org/en-opwiki/images/d/d1/Low_Carbon_Finland_Platform.pdf