External cost

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External costs are costs that are not included in the price of a product but still cause negative (or sometimes positive) impacts to the society or stakeholders. The market theory says that if external costs cannot be included in prices e.g. using taxation, the market process will lead to outcomes that deviate from the societal optimum.


What are important external costs in environmental health?


Health impacts and climate impacts are often not considered in pricing, so they remain as external costs. The code below is used to fetch the variable for models.

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External costs in environmental health(€/DALY,€/ton)
1Health50000-150000Euros lost per DALY (disability-adjusted life year)
2Climate15-75Euros lost per ton of CO2(equivalent) emitted

Numbers are rough estimates based on typical health impact assessments and common target prices of carbon trade.

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See also

Helsinki energy decision 2015
In English
Assessment Main page | Helsinki energy decision options 2015
Helsinki data Building stock in Helsinki | Helsinki energy production | Helsinki energy consumption | Energy use of buildings | Emission factors for burning processes | Prices of fuels in heat production | External cost
Models Building model | Energy balance | Health impact assessment | Economic impacts
Related assessments Climate change policies in Helsinki | Climate change policies and health in Kuopio | Climate change policies in Basel
In Finnish
Yhteenveto Helsingin energiapäätös 2015 | Helsingin energiapäätöksen vaihtoehdot 2015 | Helsingin energiapäätökseen liittyviä arvoja | Helsingin energiapäätös 2015.pptx


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