User:Edem Agbenowu

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Homework 1

#: . Very good. You have answered more questions than asked for. --Jouni (talk) 07:40, 10 April 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

1.Environmental health assessment is the application of knowledge obtained from environmental health research about how decisions and actions about the environment affect our health and this provides the basis to support policy making.

2.Shared understanding is a written description of a topic and that it covers the thinking and reasoning of all stakeholders on the topic.At the end one or more poor decision option may be identified and rejected.

3.

4.Co-creation skills are skills that are needed so that information can be organized and synthesized.

5.Open assessment unlike other methods of assessment offers stakeholders the privilege to participate comment and also edit the content of a topic as it develops from the early stages with value judgment.

6.Benefit risk assessment is a methodology used for collecting, analyzing and synthesizing scientific information and values needed in a decision making process.

7.Open assessment is a platform for collecting organizing, synthesizing information that is needed in a decision making process.

8.The purpose for participation is to contribute information that is needed for decision making process and also to be able to predict the impact of different decision option on some outcome of interest and lastly organize information for decision makers.

9.The dimension of openness are the scope of participation,Access to information,timing of openness,scope of contribution and finally impact of contribution.

10.

11.Effectiveness of an environmental health assessment is seen when it is able to change values ,attitudes and behavior outside the walls of the research community

12 .Trialogical approach to learning is alearning or knowledge creating strategy where people develop and create some concrete things together through communication of their observation and description of the things they perceive to one another.

HOMEWORK 1D The probability lecture on khan academy was very refreshing.I completed course in probability in my Bsc so it really reminded me about how to solve probability questions and apply .However the use of the cards confused me because the term given to the cards such as hearts etc are different from the terms used at my Country.In most situation the use of the die and selection of object to explain probaility of an evidenr occuring was very iformative.

Homework 3

Question 1:I will like to know the differences between output and impact as related to open policy practice? #: . --Jouni (talk) 09:56, 20 April 2017 (UTC) {{{3}}} (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

Question 2:In the main glossary section in explaining the term adverse effect the last part of the sentence said it could be an increase in susceptibility to other influences.I will be happy if that part of the definition is explained #: . Susceptibility to other influences means that the body is compromised and is more sensitive to other factors. For example, HIV virus does not directly cause influenza, but HIV infection makes a person susceptible, and then influenza viruses can more easily cause a disease in a HIV/AIDS patient. This is clearly an adverse effect of HIV although the mechanism is indirect. --Jouni (talk) 09:56, 20 April 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

"""ESSAY""".

#: . Good. --Jouni (talk) 09:56, 20 April 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

Whenever we want to make a decision that affect so many people we try as much as we can to commit every resource available to make a right choice.It becomes more complicated when the decision we make affect millions of people.A new paradigm shift to help in decision making is the principle of co-creation.Co- creation provide a platform for joint collaborative effort to produce information typically supplied by facilitators or stakeholders utilizing online tools.It is avenue through which value could be built on some of the decision that are made with regards to governmental policies business ideas ,sustainable intervention for humans as well as the purpose of scientific research.In the area of governmental policies and law for instance it has been established that co-creation through the use of "crowdsourcing" for example provided platform for individuals to share their opinion and it yielded positive results.There is a lot of research on global sustainability in an effort to solve some of the prevalent world crisis.Through the application of co creation research will not only be designed to fill a knowledge gap but rather needs of the society.This will be possible if there is an integration of knowledge from natural,social, human science and engineering.The impact of co-creation as important in decision making process is very appreciated in the business market. It has become clear that consumers can choose the firms they want to have a relationship with based on their own views of how value should be created for them.We are moving toward a world in which value is the result of an implicit negotiation between the individual consumer and the firm. Therefore, value creation, for an automaker, for example, is the result of individualized negotiations with millions of consumers.Co-creation has gradually proven effective in solving strategic problem unlike the expert mode of finding solution to problem.

The traditional approach to decision making for instance the expert mode relies on the issue of operational research method and models that permit an objective analysis of the problem in question.However this kind of approach will not be always appropriate in finding solution to some strategic problem because of lack of agreement on the scope and depth of the problem,there might as well be a lot of stakeholders with different and conflicting objectives values and interest.Hence the solution to this is to provide a platform for the stakeholders to co-create their skills and ideas to solve strategic problem.

Advantages associated with this paradigm shift is that it has discouraged managers from being product-centered thinking and instead of focusing on the experiences that customers will seek to co-create. Additionally it has provided a new source of competitive advantage as companies can tap on the experiences of the customer.In the end value will have to be jointly created by both the firm and the consumer unlike the traditional system where companies rather decided the value of the customer. Moreover this has indirectly lead to the partition some of the work they had to handle to customers.The advantages associated with this paradigm shift include the alleviation of the challenges due to the existence of several stakeholders with distinct and often conflicting perspective,objectives values and interest in decision making.


"ROLE OF FACILITATORS" A facilitators role in co-creation is to help participants so that they can make a detailed and clear as possible the different perspective of the problem in group facilitation. Moreover because the purpose of group facilitation is to make decision, facilitators should be able to help participants to integrate new and different ways of thinking with their own so that shared framework of understanding can be achieved.The basic role of a facilitators is to be able to assist a group complete its primary task.However for a facilitator to be able to carry out these role there is a need for essential skills.

A facilitator should have the ability to encourage full participation, promotes mutual understanding and fosters inclusive solution.This will require that a facilitator is able to use the art of questioning story telling and self reflection to engage people in challenging their mindset and encourage them to think in new ways.

Homework 4

For guidance about the contents, see page Assessment.

  • Put your own username in moderator=Username unless someone else takes care of the page content.
  • Add at least category using the [[Category:Name of category]] tag.
  • When the page is quite developed, change stub=No

This box of text can removed.



#: . Your assessment is good overall. I have some comments so that you can improve the content and get a better grade. Now the grade of the assessment is 1.5/2. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

Scope

Question

Efforts to deal with climate change to date have focused on mitigation especially trying to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.But the effect caused by climate change is not reversible.Hence the purpose of this assessment done by the Irish Academy of engineering is to provide recommendations on how to adapt to the changes associated with climate change.Moreover with climate change already underway, adaptation is now urgent in Ireland as elsewhere.The specific information in the assessment are ways Ireland intent to implement climate change adaptation measures.Will Ireland climate change adaptation be resilient against the impact of climate change?

#: . Clarify what specific information is produced in this assessment. Can you formulate a question that will be answered? Note that this assessment does not need to be a real assessment from a report, but it should be something that could be performed. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

Intended use and users

This assessment is to provide the people of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland adaptation issues in three key infrastructural areas: water supply, flood alleviation, and energy infrastructure with regards to climate change. It is based on inputs from leading specialists in these fields that the adaptations are required and the deliberations of a symposium,held in Dublin Castle on April 28th, 2009, and attended by the Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government and an invited audience of researchers, engineers, scientists,policy experts and administrators from all parts of Ireland.They are expected to use the information to start reforms so that their various sectors will practically put in place adaptation mechanism to climate change.

Participants

Researchers and experts in the field water supply, scientists,citizens of the republic of Ireland, policy experts and administrators from all parts of Ireland.

#: . In participants, you should be explicit and list people and organisations that would actually participate in making the assessment (or provide information for it). The government is a user rather than participant. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

They are expected to use the information to start reforms so that their various sectors will practically put in place adaptation mechanism to climate change. #: . This sentence rather belongs to intended use. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

Boundaries

The boundaries of the assessment is the whole of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.Due to the urgency of the matter and the fact that climatic changes have already started occurring the recommendations of the team of experts are expected to be carried out right away without delay.

Decisions and scenarios

The recommendations might not totally be accepted or might lack implementation will because some impacts of climate change are still debatable.The scientific expert are being proactive but this comes with associated economic cost.Large amount of money could be spend on some adaptations strategies that might in the long run not be impacted by climate change.Many scientist are of the opinion that some calculations stills has to be done to really come to a concrete conclusion on the impact of climate change.A typical example is the idea of implementation of universal water charging because the experts are of the opinion people are not charged for water hence have no incentive to conserve it and reduce consumption.They believe current water usage coupled with climate change and a growing population, could lead to water shortages in Ireland in the medium and long-term. But they forget that people need or use for water might as well change and hence the situation might not be as worse as they imagine with water shortages. Actions that are planned include: Review of current engineering standards in Ireland Co-ordination of research:



#: . Can you identify actions and are planned? Typically an assessment aims to recommend what actions should or should not be taken. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

Timing

The assessment is suppose to take place right away because experts are of the opinion they urgently need a co-ordinated longterm all island climate change adaptation plan as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.


Answer

Results

Managing climate change adaptation

High-level strategic co-ordination that is centrally managed in both jurisdictions in Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland will take an overarching view of how climate change will affect critical infrastructure in other to propose policy, make recommendations to Government,and co-ordinate implementation of required actions. These lead agencies should be tasked with directing the overall response to climate change adaptation in each jurisdiction, and liaising with its counterpart to co-ordinate an all-island adaptation plan.

Design Standard and climate Research When all new infrastructure are be designed to cope with the changing weather parameters and the more severe events expected with climate change the impact on climate change on these infrastructure will be avoided. Engineers and climate change researchers collaboration will help to identify the climatic parameters critical to infrastructure so that their research will enable the engineering profession to amend current design standards.

Water Supply

Both climate change and demographic projections predict a serious imbalance between areas where rainfall will be most plentiful (the west and northwest),and areas of greatest need (the east and southeast). A long-term plan in both the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland will ensure that necessary infrastructure provided will be timely and appropriate. These plans will ensure that sustainable water supplies, both surface and groundwater, are available across the island, while recognizing the needs of individual stakeholders and protecting water quality.

Planing on water supply will result in finding alternate sources of water so that when one source for example is affected my changing climate ,there will be other options.

Conclusions

With these recommendation made by the Irish Academy of Engineering Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland will be well equipped to adapt to the changes that will occur as a result of climate change and will not bare the full devastating effect of climate change. The changes needed to be done for this adaptation to occur will require a lot of financial commitment but it is all worth it.

Rationale

Causal diagram 1.PNG


Stakeholders

Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland

Engineers in water supply and Energy

Researchers,

Scientists,

Policy experts

Administrators from all parts of Ireland.

Dependencies

It is obvious from changes in Global weather pattern that the impact of climate change will be disastrous for many countries that have not prepared adaptation strategies over the years and hence authorities in Ireland will be very delighted to take proactive measures to ensure the safety of its citizenry just like the Irish academy of engineers.The recommendations in larger extend embraces some interventions that has been suggested by the European Union which are probably on the agenda of the Irish government.Hence it can be concluded that the Irish people and its goverment will be well motivated to carry out this recommendations.

#: . Dependencies is a description of important issues that should be considered in the assessment. Especially important are those issues that are causally related to actions and desired outcomes. How motivated the government is, is important but not typically described here. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant attack)

Analyses

Drawing lessons from the impact of certain events on the globe prove to be effective in making conclusion.References made to thames barrage in London,when Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans in August 2005 and the flooding of Mythe water treatment plant in England provide more evidence on the importance of these recommended adaption strategies

#: . What you describe here belong more to dependencies. Analysis describes, what kinds of statistical and other analyses will be performed during the assessment. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant attack)

#: . In such a brief assessment plan, you are not expected to fill the slots Analyses, Indices, or Calculations. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

Indices

Calculations

The absence of critical infrastructure like water supply will bring life toa halt in Ireland as we yet this infrastructure is now at risk from climate change.Facilities that supply energy will be severely affected the economic and social consequences will be catastrophic and therefore the need for a quick application of the recommendations made in the assessment.

See also

Keywords

References

Critical Infrastructure Adaptation for Climate Change[1]

  1. Ireland_at_Risk_2 Ireland at Risk. Critical Infrastructure Adaptation for Climate Change.

Homework 5

#: . To improve readability, you could also show the questions, not just numbers. You could also use text formatting a bit more. Some additional comments below; the current score is 1.5/2. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

1.The aim of the program was to identify vulnerable infrastructure that will be affected by climate change review its security and prioritize their adaptation.Moreover existing infrastructure should be made resilient to withstand the effect of climatic changes Simultaneously, new infrastructure must be designed with climate change in mind, and be flexible enough to be adapted to climatic changes.The key infrastructure that the program covers are water supply, flood alleviation, and energy.


2.The people of Northern Ireland and the republic of Ireland.


3.Some of the actions they plan taking to achieve their desired outcome are establishment of adaptation framework, review of engineering design standard, research in terms of infrastructure, establishment of water resource authorities,plan for future water supplies, implement universal water charging,complete risk assessment for water quality.


4.These actions are recommended by the Irish Academy of Engineering

  • Some of the decision recommended to be taken include

The establishment of high level strategic co-ordination that will be centrally managed in both northern Ireland and republic 0f ireland. The strategic co-ordination group will take an overarching view of how climate change will affect critical infrastructure, to propose policy,to make recommendations to Government,and to co-ordinate implementation.


  • Engineers and climate change researchers have to collaborate to identify the climatic parameters critical to infrastructure design, and the research needed to enable the engineering profession to amend current design standards.
  • establishment of a Water Resource Authority that will collaborate and jointly control the islands available water resource ,prepare policy and strategy and then to a grater extend manage the water resources.
  • Increase public awareness.


5.The decision makers are the Government of Ireland

6.The direct and indirect positive health impact of the decision include ;Climate change would cause warmer water temperatures, and salt contamination of coastal aquifers because of rise of sea levels and this will significantly affect the quality of the drinking water.When drinking water quality is not the best definitely it could causes diseases. However implementation of decision or recommendations for a resilient water distribution system and water resource protection against climate change will make it possible for the people to receive sustainable drinking water of the best quality.

#: . What about health impacts of floods? --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

7.These health impact will take place in the whole of northern Ireland and the republic of Ireland especially areas closer to the coast

8.The health impact is looks smaller when its compared to the impact on energy because without electricity, it will not be possible to power hospitals or pump drinking water from reservoirs, or treat sewage, or power the phone networks, or drive industries, or pump fuel. With no electricity or water, hospitals could provide only essential services and then only as long as the generators last.

9.With regard to health and other impact the intended policies definitely has to be result in a win- win due to the interconnection of other impacts to health impacts

#: . Could you describe what the win-win situations are? --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

The very evidence of expert from different fields playing a significant role in the development of adaptation for climate change represent a shared understanding the written description effectively represents the shared understanding of the group on possible impacts of climate change in Ireland and the recommendations to reduce or avoid these impacts.

#: . Does the text describe that several stakeholders were heard and their views where also incorporated into the report? If not, then we do not know whether the report is shared understanding of the topic. --Jouni (talk) 19:48, 10 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

Homework 6

  • part A

#: . Your analysis is very good. However, I'd like you to focus on the assessment report you read rather than whole climate policy in Ireland. So, think about the people and organisations that did participate in preparing and writing the report, or people who would have important knowledge but did not participate in writing the report. The focus here is on producing information about climate policies in Ireland, not about implementing climate policies in Ireland. The current evaluation is 1.5/2 points. --Jouni (talk) 04:36, 11 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

The Irish Academy of Engineering,

The Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland,

Researchers,

Engineers,

Scientist,

Policy experts

role of participants
Participant Role
The Irish Academy of Engineering Developed the assessment and and made recommendation
The Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland Making sure all existing government department is assigned a lead agency status, to take an overarching view of the impact of climate change on critical infrastructure, propose policy and recommend actions, and co-ordinate implementation.
Scientist The scientist are expected to develop other options for survival.Example the use of cost effective measures to treat sea water to serve as drinking water is also one of the target of the adaptation strategy.
Researchers There role of researcher will be to provide credible data so that the impact of extreme events as a result of global warming will be identified correctly and the necessary decision and design strategy implemented.
Engineers They will review constantly design standard and make changes as new certainty about climate change parameters emerges.
Policy expert Development of new policies that established priorities to deal with the effect of climate change example policies that will deal equitably with competing demand for scarce water resource.

Irish Academy of engineering

Expert contributions from climate change scientist.

    • They where able to make significant contribution of how climate change will affect the people of Ireland. Their expert advice indicated the need to put into place climate change adaptation strategy

Expert advice from engineers and infrastructure experts.

    • Made recommendation based on the foreseen impact that climate change will have on infrastructure such as power supply roads water and supply.

Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

EU Framework Directives.

    • The Day to day management of the water supply infrastructure, and implementation of water policy and strategy should be on a regional basis,

consistent with the EU Water Framework Directive, River Basin Districts as proposed by the recommendation in the assessment

Climate change initiatives adaptation plan

    • Already the goverment had started some initiatve that where clearly in line with the climate change adaptation model

Goverment Department and Agency

Scientist

Climate change models

    • The need to verify or authenticate the impact of climate change models by use of models

Research

Climate change parameters Engineers and climate change researchers should collaborate to identify the climate parameters that are critical to infrastructure design, and the research needed to enable the engineering profession to amend current design standards climate change data

Engineers climate change parameters critical to infrastructure design

    • The engineering profession should constantly review design standards and amend these as uncertainty about climate change reduces

Policy Experts

    • A universal charging policy should be implemented for all water users, while making due allowance foraffordability issues in the domestic sector

water policy.


Homework 6B

#: . Very good, but see also my comment to HW6/Part A. You can focus also this answer a bit. Current evaluation 1.5/2 points. --Jouni (talk) 04:36, 11 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

#: . You could pay attention to the formatting. Here are some tips:

  1. It looks nicer if you number the questions rather than answers.
    • Answers can be a bullet list. Indent is correct if you start the lines with #*
  2. Don't use empty lines in numbered lists:
  1. because then the numbering will start again from 1.
    • Unlike in regular text, in bullet lists and numbered lists a single line break will brake

the list. --Jouni (talk) 04:36, 11 May 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

  • How could the relevant participants be involved in the assessment in an effective way?
  1. The lead agencies for managing adaptations should co-ordinate in all their view with respect to impact of climate change on on infrastructure and the policy they propose.
  2. There should be collaboration between engineers and researchers in order to identify the climate parameters that are critical to infrastructure

design, and the research needed to enable the engineering profession to amend current design standards

  1. There should be discussions between the lead agency, engineering profession and climate change researchers to develop new methodologies for improving our estimates of flood flows, rainfall intensities
  • How can the quality of an assessment be assured if anyone can participate?
  1. The jurisdiction of each of the participant should be clearly defined.
  • How can you prevent malevolent contributions where the purpose is to vandalise the process?
  1. The basis of any contribution on the adaptation strategy should be based on facts
  • How can you make the outcome converge to a conclusion, because all issues are uncertain and controversial?
  1. With regards to any issue that is controversial there need to be collaboration between the relevant participant involved.For example if there is a controversy on impact of climate change on energy.Energy experts are consulted to come to a conclusion before the best adaptation strategy is implemented
  • How can you ensure that the outcomes are useful for the users?
  1. There should be an opportunity to do evaluation based on response from relevant stakeholders in the climate change adaptation strategy.
  2. Continuous update of recommendation based on current scientific finding


Homework 8


This variable page was created by Edem Agbenowu and Margaret Arogunyo for the purpose of the Congestion charge assessment.

#: . Very good. See two comments below. --Jouni (talk) 11:45, 28 August 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

Question

Does Congestion charge scheme improve the populations’ health?

#: . You could specify the question by setting clear geographical boundaries such as "in Helsinki" or "in the cities that already have experience of implementation of congestion charge". This is important because your current question is too general to be answered: in some cities some schemes would improve health, but in other cities or with other schemes would not. --Jouni (talk) 11:45, 28 August 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant attack)

Boundaries

This question is specifically designed with respect to the health impact of the population due to the introduction of congestion charge.However the revelations cuts across various research on the effect on the health of population as a result of congestion charge.

Answer

Results in various research done example in London and Stockholm clearly show that congestion has effect on the health of the population.

#: . You could summarise here what you say in Rationale: pollutant concentrations are reduced and thus health is probably improved. --Jouni (talk) 11:45, 28 August 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant comment)

Rationale

Congestion charge was introduced for example in London to cut traffic in the city of London , but a study in Occupational and Environmental Medicine says reduced pollution has aided health as well.Scientists from two London colleges calculated that since 2003, 1,888 extra years of life had been saved among the city's seven million residents.The link between certain types of traffic pollution and health problems, including heart attack and breathing problems in children, are well-established, and Transport for London's own figures estimate that the capital's poor air quality is responsible for 1,000 premature deaths and 1,000 extra hospital admissions every year.While acknowledging that the benefits were fairly "modest" in size, the researchers said that traffic-cutting schemes could still be considered as potentially health-improving policies. [1].According to EHC Teknik, specialist in the manufacture of exhaust filters, emissions include over 40 substances that are listed as hazardous air pollutants and 15 of them are listed as carcinogenic for humans.We inhale airborne particles that enter our respiratory system and fasten in our lungs. This can affect human health in both the short and the long term. The consequences for our health are alarming: - Shortterm: acute respiratory problems, reduced lung function, chronic bronchitis, asthma, etc. - Long term: cardiovascular problems, lung cancer, bladder cancer, etc Therefore any initiative such as congestion charge that will demotivate individuals from using vehicles at populated places such as the city centers no matter how modest reduction in emission can go a long way to reduce exposure of the population to hazardous pollutants and in effect improve the health of the community that lives at the city centers.The Helsinki metropolitan area population growth has been in the last 15 years a percent. This pace would mean that by 2025 the new residents would come to the region of about 200 000.[2].Eventhough the effect of congestion charge on population health is not among the three main objectives of the ministry of transport and communication in Heslsinki, improvement in population health will be an added advantage to the people of Helsinki.

The other side of the coin is when congestion charge influence the means of transportation of individuals living close to congestion charge zone.There is the possiblity of individuals swtiching from using vehicles to biking.In a study done in sweden mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 μg m− 3 decrease in NOx, this corresponds to > 449 (95% CI: 340–558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants

Congestion charge.jpg

In the United Kingdom a comprehensive analysis of the impact using detailed traffic data, combined with the Environmental Research Group's road traffic emissions model, has identified a number of important results. First, between 2002 and 2003, total NOX emissions in the charging zone have reduced by −12.0% ±12% (2σ) and have increased on the inner ring road (IRR) by +1.5%. PM10 emissions have reduced by −11.9% in the charging zone and by −1.4% on the IRR. There is a significant reduction in the emissions of NOX and PM10 associated with increases in vehicle speed and that this is as important in reducing emissions as changes in vehicle numbers.The evidence presented shows that the congestion charging schemes could assist in attaining both the UK government's targets on air pollution as well as those relating to climate change and other international obligations.[3].

The summary below indicate that despite how modest the emission reductions are they can still go a long way to improve population health especially those living around or spending a lot of time in the city centers of helsinki that are usually congested.

User:Edem Agbenowu(Available data on air quality effects of congestion charge)
ObsYearCityAir quality parameterAir quality effected due to congestion charge inmplmentation
12006StockholmNOx8.5% reduction of emissions
22006StockholmPM1013% reduction of emissions
32005LondonNOxsignificant reduction of emissions
42005LondonPM10significant reduction of emissions
52005LondonCO2significant reduction of emissions


HOMEWORK 9

#: . Very good description of the assessment setting. However, you have not evaluated the properties of the assessment (quality of content, applicability, or efficiency). Score 1.5 / 2 points. --Jouni (talk) 08:27, 6 November 2017 (UTC) (type: truth; paradigms: science: relevant defense)

Evaluation of the Assessment of climate change Adaptation strategy in Singapore.

Table 1. Characterization of the assessment
Attribute Characterization
Impacts The Assessment was focused on answering questions as to whether climate change adaptation strategies cover the major areas affected by the climate changes in Singapore.Moreover adaptation strategies were assessed if they are realistic and sufficient to efficiently combat the climate change effects in Singapore.Finally the assessment was to ascertain whether the view of all the important stakeholders were equally considered.
Causes Singapore lies below sea level and therefore rising sea level poses a great threat to Singapore coastal line. Drinking water will be affected.Animal and plant biodiversity will be affected by climate change.Rising temperatures can be linked to increase of vector-borne disease such as dengue
Problem owner The assessment is of main interest particularly to the decision makers/authorities such as Government of Singapore. Secondly it is also of interest to wide range of consultants from different businesses and other possible stakeholders or interest groups.

The assessment draft does not identify who could perform the assessment.

The impacts considered in the assessment affect the whole population in the city of Singapore, especially those living or working around the coastline.

Target Assessment results are primarily intended for the local authorities to enable them plan climate change mitigation actions in Singapore. Besides the authorities the results of the assessment may be of use to other stakeholders as well (e.g. local businesses, inhabitants).Different working groups: A multiagency Resilience Working Group (RWG) under the auspices of the Inter-Ministerial Committee on Climate Change (reviewing existing measures and developing new measures for adaptation to climate change), Meteorological Service Singapore, local research institutions (working on climate change models and coastal protection) could all benefit
Interaction The draft assessment does not specifically identify who and how will perform it so it is hard to identify the scale of interaction between the different stakeholders that will use its findings and the ones making the assessment.The participants taking part in the assessment has been indicated but the scale of the interaction among them might be shared participation, since it has not been stated.

See also

Congestion charge

Talk:Congestion charge

Keywords

Congestion charge, air quality, impacts, Helsinki

References

Related files

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Edem Agbenowu. Opasnet . [4]. Accessed 19 Mar 2019.