Pathogen concentrations in raw water

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Question

What are typical concentrations of pathogens in raw water used for drinking water?

Answer

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Rationale

Raw water has been categorized based on its source and cleanliness:

  • Ground water - clean
    • Clean groundwater
  • Groundwater - surface water contamination
    • for ex. shore infiltration
  • Surface water - low contamination
    • Relatively clean surface water
  • Surface water - medium contamination
    • for ex. low waste water contamination
  • Surface water - high contamination
    • for ex. waste water contamination

Data

The concentrations are based on experts' estimates on concentrations of different pathogens in different kinds of raw water sources and contamination situations. [1] [2] [3] [4]

Pathogen concentrations in raw water(mikrobia/l)
ObsRawWaterClassPathogenUnitResult
1Ground water - cleancampylobactermicrobes/l0
2Ground water - cleanE.coli O157:H7microbes/l0
3Ground water - cleanrotavirusmicrobes/l0
4Ground water - cleannorovirusmicrobes/l0
5Ground water - cleancryptosporidiummicrobes/l0
6Ground water - cleangiardiamicrobes/l0
7Ground water - surface water contaminationcampylobactermicrobes/l0
8Ground water - surface water contaminationE.coli O157:H7microbes/l0
9Ground water - surface water contaminationrotavirusmicrobes/l0
10Ground water - surface water contaminationnorovirusmicrobes/l0
11Ground water - surface water contaminationcryptosporidiummicrobes/l0
12Ground water - surface water contaminationgiardiamicrobes/l0
13Surface water - low contaminationcampylobactermicrobes/l1
14Surface water - low contaminationE.coli O157:H7microbes/l1
15Surface water - low contaminationrotavirusmicrobes/l0.1
16Surface water - low contaminationnorovirusmicrobes/l0.1
17Surface water - low contaminationcryptosporidiummicrobes/l0.1
18Surface water - low contaminationgiardiamicrobes/l0.1
19Surface water - medium contaminationcampylobactermicrobes/l50
20Surface water - medium contaminationE.coli O157:H7microbes/l50
21Surface water - medium contaminationrotavirusmicrobes/l1
22Surface water - medium contaminationnorovirusmicrobes/l1
23Surface water - medium contaminationcryptosporidiummicrobes/l10
24Surface water - medium contaminationgiardiamicrobes/l50
25Surface water - high contaminationcampylobactermicrobes/l1000
26Surface water - high contaminationE.coli O157:H7microbes/l1000
27Surface water - high contaminationrotavirusmicrobes/l100
28Surface water - high contaminationnorovirusmicrobes/l100
29Surface water - high contaminationcryptosporidiummicrobes/l100
30Surface water - high contaminationgiardiamicrobes/l500

Calculations

Put the data in this page into an ovariable

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The raw water default class: Surface water - high contamination

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Use the ovariable to only include data from one raw water class

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See also

References

  1. Hrudey, S. E. and Hrudey, E. J. (2004). Safe Drinking Water. Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, IWA Publishing.
  2. Medema, G. J., Teunis, P. F., Blokker, M., Deere, D., Davidson, D., Charles, P. and Loret, J. F. (2009). Risk assessment of Cryptosporidium in drinking water, World Health Organisation.
  3. Pedley, S., Yates, M., Schivjen, J. F., West, J., Howard, G. and Barrett, M. (2006). Pathogens: Health relevance, transport and attentuation. Protecting Groundwater for Health Managing the Quality of Drinking‐water Sources. O. Schmoll, G. Howard, J. Chilton and I. Chorus, World Health Organization
  4. WHO (2004). Guidelines for Drinking‐water Quality Third Edition. Volume 1. Geneva, World Health Organization.
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