District heat production in Finland

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Question

How is district heat produced in Finland currently and in the future? More specifically:

  • How much district heat is produced in combined heat and power (CHP) plants versus plants which only produce heat?
  • What is the capacity range of district heat production plants?
  • What fuels are used in district heat production?

Answer

Rationale

Statistics Finland[1]:

  • District heat production statistics for Finland from 2004 onwards.
  • District heat statistics for 2010:
Plant type: Combined heat and power Separate heat production
GWh Share GWh Share
Oil 291 1 % 2339 24 %
Coal 7422 25 % 675 7 %
Natural gas 9080 31 % 2789 29 %
Other fossil fuel 209 1 % 248 3 %
Peat 6334 22 % 1155 12 %
Black liquor and other concentrated liquors 233 1 % 0 0 %
Other wood fuels 5097 17 % 1457 15 %
Other renewables 334 1 % 200 2 %
Other energy sources 208 1 % 887 9 %
Total 29208 100 % 9750 100 %

Notes:

  • In addition to hard coal, coal includes blast furnace gas and coke oven gas and coke.
  • Mixed fuels (such as recycled fuel) are divided into renewable and fossil fuels in ratio to the fossil and biodegradable coal contained in them. Other fossil fuels include plastics fuels and other waste fuels and the fossil part of mixed fuels. Other renewable fuels comprise the bio part of mixed fuels and biogas.
  • Other energy sources include hydrogen, electricity, and reaction and secondary heat of industry.
  • Combined heat and power production includes pure combined production.
  • Reduction heat produced in connection with condensate production and combined heat and power production were calculated in separate production of heat.


Finnish Energy Industries[2][3]:

  • District heat plants and capacities in 2010:
    • There were 94 heat and power cogeneration plants that produced district heat. The total heat capacity of these was 7210 MW. Of the 94 plants, 10 were industrial plants (total capacity 350 MW).
    • There were 666 stationary distric heat plants (separate heat production), the total heat capacity of which was 13070 MW.
    • In addition, there were 392 portable district heat plants (separate heat production), the total capacity of which was 1400 MW.


Vehviläinen et al. 2007[4]:

  • Electricity production capacity classes of combined heat and power plants (% of all CHP plants). Estimated development from 2005 to 2050 based on a questionnaire sent to all Finnish district heat producers (answer percentage: 75% of all district heat producers, 85% of all CHP producers). Numbers estimated from the graph 4.14.
Capacity (MW) 2005 2010 2020 2030 2050
>100 70.8 68.2 61.5 59.4 57.8
50-100 12.5 14.5 12.5 15.6 15.1
20-50 10.4 8.8 16.1 14.6 14.6
1-20 5.7 8.8 9.9 10.9 10.9
<1 1


Finnish government: Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy 2008[5]:

  • Fuel consumption in combined district heat and power production in the baseline scenario (i.e. compliance with measures and development in place before the 2008 government climate and energy strategy). Estimated development from 2006 to 2050:
2006 2010 2020 2030 2050
TWh Share TWh Share TWh Share TWh Share TWh Share
Oil 2.7 5 % 3.8 6 % 5.5 9 % 3.8 6 % 1.4 2 %
Coal 14.8 26 % 12.8 21 % 12.7 20 % 12.5 20 % 12.7 19 %
Natural gas 18.8 34 % 21.3 36 % 22 35 % 21.6 34 % 22.3 34 %
Peat 10.3 18 % 9.5 16 % 9.8 16 % 9.8 16 % 10.2 16 %
Industrial wood residues 4.1 7 % 4.6 8 % 3.9 6 % 3.8 6 % 3.9 6 %
Forest wood chip 3.2 6 % 4.7 8 % 5.3 8 % 8.5 13 % 11.6 18 %
Other bio/recycle 2.2 4 % 3.1 5 % 3.2 5 % 3.2 5 % 3.3 5 %
Total 56.1 59.8 62.4 63.2 65.4
  • In the baseline scenario, the total use of forest wood chip in energy production (primary energy) increases from 7.2 TWh in 2006 to 18 TWh in 2020. Of this 18 TWh in 2020, 11.5 TWh (64%) is used in industrial heat and electricity production and 5.3 TWh (30%) in CHP-production for community use.
  • In the target scenario (i.e. measures outlined in the 2008 climate and energy strategy are in place), the total use of forest wood chip in energy production (primary energy) increases from 7.2 TWh in 2006 to 21 TWh in 2020.


Dependencies

Formula

See also

Keywords

energy production, district heat, Finland

References

Related files

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District heat production in Finland. Opasnet . [1]. Accessed 16 Jan 2019.