Impacts of urban transport

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This assessment estimates the impacts of urban transport. It currently focuses on health impacts (air pollution, accidents, physical activity) and greenhouse gas emissions (CO2 emissions), but the assessment may be expanded later. The model file is Impacts of urban transport.ANA.



What are the health and climate impacts of urban transport?


  • Urban area of a random city
  • Years 2010, 2030


Scenarios for year 2030:[1]

Business as usual
no additional greenhouse gas policies.
Lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles
reducing the emission factors from motor vehicles.
Increased active travel
a large increase in cycling, a doubling in the distance walked, and a reduction in car use with a small reduction in road freight.
Towards sustainable transport
combined the lower-emission motor vehicles from the lower-carbon-emission motor vehicles scenario, and the low car use and longer distances walked and cycled from the increased active travel scenario.
Short-distance active travel
included the same low-car use as in the increased active travel scenario but with half the rise in distances walked and cycled because of shorter distances and reduced travel times.

Intended use and users



File:Impacts of urban transport.PNG
Generic causal diagram for impacts of urban transport.

Decision variables

  • See scenarios above.


  • Burden of disease

Value variables

Other variables



  • Year
  • Sex
  • Pollutant
  • City
  • Mode (of transportation)




See also


  1. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport. James Woodcock, Phil Edwards, Cathryn Tonne, Ben G Armstrong, Olu Ashiru, David Banister, Sean Beevers, Zaid Chalabi, Zohir Chowdhury, Aaron Cohen, Oscar H Franco, Andy Haines, Robin Hickman, Graeme Lindsay, Ishaan Mittal, Dinesh Mohan, Geetam Tiwari, Alistair Woodward, Ian Roberts. Published Online November 25, 2009. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61714-1