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Composite traffic is a hypothetical traffic system based on large-scale demand-responsive public transportation. The basic idea is to aggregate a major part of urban personal trips into taxi-like vehicles. A vehicle is shared by people that have the same origin and destination, thus increasing the effectiveness of the transportation compared with taxis. In practice, the composite traffic is clearly more cost-effective, if a large part of passengers are willing to make one change during the trip. A change increases the flexibility in the aggregation.
- op_fi:Ytrips Oy
- MOIA: a company developing on-demand shuttles, or composite traffic. It is owned by Volkswagen.
- Mobility as a service (MaaS)
- Whim: travel application for all transportation 
- Tuup: Tuup offers multi-modal daily traveling, including Kyyti on-demand ride service in one app. 
- Talouselämä 23.3.2017: Kyyti-halpataksipalvelu hämmensi Taksiliiton puheenjohtajan - "Ettei vain kävisi samalla tavalla kuin Onnibusin kanssa" 
- Lovelace, Robin (2014) The energy costs of commuting: a spatial microsimulation approach. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield. 
- Tomtom traffic index: Stockholm Helsinki
- Urban fabrics
- Marko Tainio, Audrey J. de Nazelle, Thomas Götschi, Sonja Kahlmeier, David Rojas-Rueda, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Paul Kelly, James Woodcock. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?
Preventive Medicine, Volume 87, Issue null, Pages 233-236. 
- Macmillan A, Connor J, Witten K, Kearns R, Rees D, Woodward A. 2014. The societal costs and benefits of commuter bicycling: simulating the effects of specific policies using system dynamics modeling. Environ Health Perspect 122:335–344; doi:10.1289/ehp.1307250
- Composite traffic model
- File:Composite traffic.ANA
- Cost-benefit assessment on composite traffic in Helsinki
- Opasnet:Composite traffic in theoretical Europe (research)
- Tuomisto and Tainio: An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation. BMC Public Health 2005; 5: 123
- A report on Finnish demand-responsive public transportation in non-urban areas, published 12 Sept 2008. According to the report, all people should have a right to basic public transportation. The basic right would be two visits to a nearby town per week with the cost of public transportation to the user. This basic travel guarantee would cost ca. 11 million €/a.
- A car pooling website in Finland
- Phil Goodwin, Professor of Transport Policy
- Centre for Transport & Society,University of the West of England, Bristol
- Bussin voi pian tilata tekstarilla (in Finnish)
- Keskustelussa tulevaisuuden liikenne
EU project results from Cordis
- A viable communication alternative for city taxis
- Car sharing in Rome
- Maximising integrated transport options
- Applying European transport policy
- Automated for the public transport
- Car sharing for the edge of Bremen
- 2050: A city odyssey
- TransLink: "It's Your Move!" awarded by IAP2 (International Association for Public Participation)
- TaxMobil, a German Demand-responsive system in Frankfurt
- Health economic assessment tool for cycling and walking (HEAT). Methodology and user guide. Examples. HEAT tool
- Tapas project
- Bussi-Esko: Plussan puolelle
- Tuomisto and Tainio: An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation. BMC Public Health 2005; 5: 123 .