Developmental dose-responses of fish consumption
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Original author: Henna Karvonen, Foodfiles Ltd 2006.
The effects of fish in development and infancy.
|Ecological, descriptive and cross-sectional studies||Cohort and case-control studies||Exposure data from cohort and case-control studies||Interventions||Exposure data from interventions||Comments|
|IQ of children||-||+||Fish||++||Fish oil and MeHg||Recent meta-analyses have calculated that increasing maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake by 100 mg/day increases child IQ by 0.13 points whereas prenatal MeHg exposure sufficient to increase the concentration of mercury in maternal hair at parturition by 1 microg/g decreases IQ by 0.7 points. Cohort study on child development outcomes and prenatal exposures to MeHg from maternal consumption of a diet high in fish found no consistent pattern of associations between these variable.|
|Prevention of pre-eclampsia||-||+||Omega-3 fatty acids in erythroscytes||++||Fish oil||Current evidence does not support the use of fish oil supplements for the prevention of preeclampsia|
|Prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension||?||?||++||Fish oil||At least six trials have examined the effect of fish oil supplementation on pregnancy induced hypertension none of them has provided evidence to support the use of fish oil supplements for the prevention of pregnancy induced hypertension|
|Retinal function||?||?||++||Long chain PUFA||The effect of long chain PUFA supplementation of formula on visual acuity of infants born at term has been studied in at least seven RCTs. No constant findings on benefits exists, but supplementation appears to be relatively safe. Maternal supplementation increases the DHA concentration of milk in lactating mothers.|
- No data, + Initial findings, ++ Replicate studies, +++ Plenty of data, ? No profound search done, some data may exist
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- Foran JA, Good DH, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ: Quantitative analysis of the benefits and risks of consuming farmed and wild salmon. J Nutr. 2005 Nov;135(11):2639-43
- Jensen CL, Maude M, Anderson RE, Heird WC: Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):292S-9S
- Simmer K. Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000376. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000376.
- Villar J, Merialdi M, Gulmezoglu AM, Abalos E, Carroli G, Kulier R, de Onis M: Nutritional interventions during pregnancy for the prevention or treatment of maternal morbidity and preterm delivery: an overview of randomized controlled trials. J Nutr. 2003;133(5 Suppl 2):1606S-1625S.