Dioxin emission in Hämeenkyrö
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Dioxin emissions in Hämeenkyrö. Annual dioxin emissions in the area of Hämeenkyrö municipality from the relevant sectors (involving both current sources, as well as the possible future sources considering the different decisions on the MSWI).
The name dioxin is used for the family of structurally and chemically related polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Some 419 types of dioxin-related compounds have been identified, and about 30 of these are considered to have significant toxicity.
Dioxins are produced unintentionally as by-products of many chemical industrial processes and of all combustion processes. Sources include metal industry, power plants, industrial combustion plants, small combustion units (mostly domestic), waste incineration, road transport and mineral products production.
Total dioxin emissions are usually reported in toxic equivalency values (TEQ), which enables comparison of the toxicity of different combinations of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. A TEQ is calculated by multiplying the actual grams weight of each dioxin and dioxin-like compound by its corresponding toxic equivalency factor (TEF) and then summing the results. The number that results from this calculation is referred to as grams TEQ.
(Comment: The emissions sources of dioxin are known pretty well. Although it is unlikely that these factories have direct dioxin measurements, emission estimates for the sources of this size should be available. You should ask Juhani Ruuskanen (KuY) or Päivi Ruokojärvi (KTL)).
- UNEP (1999a). United Nations Environment Programme. Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. January 2001 (draft)
- UNEP (1999b). United Nations Environment Programme. Dioxin and furan inventories, National and regional emissions of PCDD/PCDF, May 1999
- SYKE 2004. Finnish Environment Institute. Air pollutant emissions in Finland 1990-2002. National inventory report.
Inputs = Kyro gas power plant, MSWI in Hämeenkyrö, biofuel power plant in Hämeenkyrö, landfills, fires on landfill areas, waste transport
- the local gas power plant
- landfills, traffic
- domestic combustion
- (cardboard factory, sawmill)
- Municipal solid waste incinerator
- biofuel power plant
Emission factors for different processes (UNEP 1999a):
- Municipal solid waste incineration (µg TEQ/t MSW burned)
- Low technology combustion, no APC system: air 3500, fly ash 0, bottom ash 75
- Controlled combustion, minimal APC: air 350, fly ash 500, bottom ash 75
- Controlled combustion, good APC: air 30, fly ash 200, bottom ash 7
- High technology combustion, sophisticated APC system: air 0.5, fly ash 15, bottom ash 1.5
- Energy production (µg TEQ/TJ)
- Natural gas fired power boiler: 0.5
- Mixed biomass fired power boiler: air 500, residue NA
- Clean wood fired power boiler: air 50, residue 15
- Domestic energy production (µg TEQ/TJ)
- Household heating and cooking (contaminated wood/ biomass fired stoves): air 1500, residue 2000
- Virgin wood/ biomass fired stoves: air 100, residue 20
- Domestic heating (coal fired stoves): air 70, residue 5000
- Domestic heating (Oil fired stoves): air 10, residue NA
- Domestic heating (natural gas fired stoves): air 1.5, residue NA
- Transport (µg TEQ/t of fuel burned)
- 4-stroke engines
- leaded fuel without catalyst: air
- unleaded fuel without catalyst: air 0.1
- unleaded fuel with catalyst
- Diesel engines: air 0.5
- 4-stroke engines
- Production of pulp and paper products
- Emissions from landfills (pg TEQ/L of leachate released)
- Hazardous wastes: air 0, water 200
- Non-hazardous wastes: air 0, water 30
- Landfill fires (µg TEQ/t of material burned): air 1000