Science necessitates collaboration

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Science necessitates collaboration is a lecture about how collaboration is necessary condition for scientific development and how collaboration can be facilitated by means of web-based formal argumentation.


Purpose: To describe the role of collaboration in science and how web-based formal argumentation can be used in facilitating scientific collaboration.

Intended audience: Researchers (especially at doctoral student level) in any field of science (mainly natural, not social scientists).

Duration: 2 x 1 hour 15 minutes


The lecture consists of two parts: the first discussing what collaboration means in the context of science and how it is operationalized in open assessment, the second part discusses more technically how to collaborate in open assessment by means of web-based formal argumentation.

In order to understand this lecture it is recommended to first acquaint oneself with the following lectures:


  • Learn why collaboration is better than working alone.
  • Learn to apply the scientific method, and the importance of it in open assessment.
  • Learn the structure of formal argumentation.
  • Learn how to collaborate


Part I:

Part II:

  • web-based pragma-dialectical argumentation
    • hypothesis
    • statement about hypothesis
    • arguments for and/or against statement
    • arguments for and/or against arguments
  • unless a statement becomes invalidated, the hypothesis must be refined accordingly