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- The INTARESE framework comprises all relevant aspects and builds on all relevant methods to provide guidance for a comprehensive and integrated risk/impact assessment. It recognised the concept of the DPSIR, DPSEEA and MEME frameworks but provides a more flexible and comprehensive framework. The key attributes are:
- the full chain approach, including variables and causal relationships linking the different steps in the chain from source to impact
- the logical process of assessment (steps involved in the execution of the assessment, tasks and responsibilities of the parties involved)
- information input and models (data input and processing, applying models, transforming intermediate variables into meaningful indicators and summary indices)
- appraisal of the information from multiple perspectives
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|Used by whom||ExternE / Heimtsa||Intarese||EEA||WHO|
|Source||||||  |||
|Summary||The impact pathway approach allows for the determination of impacts (e.g. health effects) and damages (external costs) due to emissions of pollutants.||The full chain covers all the aspects from the other frameworks and focuses on comprehensiveness and integration. It is limited to human health.||The causal framework for describing the interactions between society and the environment adopted by the European Environment Agency: driving forces, pressures, states, impacts, responses (extension of the PSR model developed by OECD).||The DPSEEA (Driving Forces - Pressures - State - Exposure - Effects - Actions) model is useful in designing a system of environmental health indicators within the decision-making context.|
|Driving forces|| Activities
Activities that lead to emissions, e.g. driving a car, producing energy, using hairspray
| Driving forces
Areas in public life that exert pressure on the environment, e.g. economic sectors, households.
| Driving forces |
The driving forces refer to the factors that motivate and push the environmental processes involved.
|Pressures, e.g. emissions|| Emissions
Emissions into air, water and soil, depending on activities and emission factors; can be reduced by applying mitigation measures
| Sources: emissions, releases
Due to activities and processes (natural and anthropogenic)
Resulting environmental burden, e.g. due to waste and built-up areas
| Pressures |
This result is the generation of pressures on the environment.
|State of the environmental media|| Concentrations / Depositions
Changes in the state of the environmental media leading to impacts
| Quality of environmental media: concentration
After dispersion and transformation
State of an environmental compartment that is exposed to the burden, e.g. changes in atmosphere and lithosphere
| State |
In response to the pressures, the state of the environment is often modified.
|Exposure|| Concentrations / Depositions / Intake/Uptake
Concentrations that effect the population intake via ingestion.
Sensible area that is exposed to deposition
Material that is exposed to depostion
| Exposure settings: Exposure
Depending on population behaviour, e.g. time-activity pattern, product use, diet
| Exposure |
Deterioration in the state of the environment, however, poses risks to human well-being only when there is interplay between people and the hazards in the environment. Exposure is therefore rarely an automatic consequence of the existence of a hazard: it requires that people are present both at the place and at the time that the hazard occurs. Exposure to environmental hazards, in turn, leads to a wide spectrum of health effects, which may be acute or chronic. The concept of exposure is best developed in relation to pollutants in environmental media. The amount of the pollutant absorbed, i.e. the "dose", depends on the duration and intensity of the exposure.
|Impacts / Effects, e.g. health effects|| Impacts
Impacts on the receptors, e.g. human health effects, adverse effects on crops, materials and ecosystems
| Human body: dose, health effects
After inhalation, dermal exposure, ingestion Pathophysiological processes lead from a dose to a health effect
Specific impact due to the environmental burden, e.g. greenhouse effect, soil pollution
| Effects |
Some hazards may have a rapid effect following exposure, whereas others may require a long time to produce an adverse health effect.
External costs of the impacts due to the emissions. Thus, the impacts are made comparable; and a cost-benefit-analysis can be conducted.
| Social, cultural, political, economical and judicial settings: Impacts
Taking place of valuation and weighing; risk characterisation; e.g. policy deficits, disease burden, societal (external) costs, perceptions
|Answers of society / Actions|| Responses
Social reaction to the burden, e.g. research and laws
| Actions |
In face of the environmental problems and consequent health effects, society attempts to adopt and implement a
range of actions. These may take many forms and be targeted at different points within the environment-health continuum. Actions may be taken to reduce or control the hazards concerned, such as by limiting emissions of pollutants or introducing flood control measures. The most effective long-term actions, however, are those that are preventive in approach, aimed at eliminating or reducing the forces that drive the system.