Energy supply policies in Europe

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Scope

What are potential energy supply policies in Europe (EU-30) during the period 2010-2050 such that

  • they maintain or improve the energy supply system,
  • they help to achieve the climate change mitigation targets,
  • they are economically feasible?

Definition

Data

Dependencies

Unit

-

Formula

Result

Possible policy combinations of energy supply policies in Europe.
European climate policies
Policy European BAU European policy scenario
Basic energy policy None of the policies below All of the policies below
More nuclear energy in power production None except this All except this
More biofuels in power production None except this All except this
More renewables in power production None except this All except this
Reduced gas leaks None except this All except this
More combined heat and power None except this All except this
Liquid biofuels in transport None except this All except this
Electricity in transport None except this All except this
Gas, hydrogen etc in transport None except this All except this
More biomass in heat production None except this All except this
More natural gas in heat production None except this All except this
Carbon capture and storage None except this All except this


For the logic of the assessment table above, see the explanation on Road transport policies in Europe#Result.


Description of energy policy options in Europe.
Policy Reference (BAU) Policy option (Careful! partly hypothetical!)
More nuclear energy in power production No new nuclear energy Increase nuclear energy by 50 %, reduce hard coal and lignite by the same amount.
More biofuels in power production No change in biofuels (3 % of total energy supply). Increase the amount of biofuels to 20 % of the total energy supply. Reduce natural gas, hard coal and lignite by the same amount (60 % reduction?)
More renewables in power production No new renewables (keep to current 14 % of total energy supply). Increase renewables to 35 % by increasing photovoltaic cells*10, wind*8, hydro*1.5. Reduce hard coal and lignite by the same amount.
Reduced gas leaks No new actions to gas pipes. Clear improvements with gas pipes and considerable reduction in leakages.
More combined heat and power (CHP) No change in production of combined heat and power. Considerable increase in CHP (how much?). Reduce coal and lignite by the amount that electricity is supplied.
Liquid biofuels in transport No additional biofuels in transport. 4700 PJ/a of additional biofuels in transport. Source of biofuel?
Electricity in transport No new electric vehicles? 30 % of new cars are electric (see Road transport policies in Europe). What is the increase in electricity need?
Gas, hydrogen etc in transport No major change? The Road transport policies in Europe only assume increased hybrid and electric cars. Should there be hydrogen or gas as well?
More biomass in heat production No change in biofuels (3 % of total energy supply). Increase the amount of biofuels to 20 % of the total energy supply. Reduce natural gas, hard coal and lignite by the same amount (60 % reduction?)
More natural gas in heat production  ?  ?
Carbon capture and storage No carbon capture and storage (CCS). Increase CCS in coal, lignite, and natural gas plants (how much? - will be result of energy model; for screening purpose any percentage reslts in the same mDALY / tCO2). No change in total energy production.

See also

References