Emission factors for burning processes

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Scope

What are the emission factors for burning processes in Finland? D↷

Definition

Emission factors for burning processes is an impact assessment that take a wide perspective over environmental issues that can dealt with on a city level

See discussions with the statements in the discussion page.D↷

Data

In Finland there are about 700 kettles that has under 5MW fuel power. Same amount is between 5 to 50 MW kettles and over 50 MW kettles there are 200 in Finland. One heating power plant can have several kettles. Many 5-50 MW power plants has also less than 5 MW kettle. [1]

Emission factors for PM

Next table includes emission factors for small power plants in Finland. [2]

Type of plant or kettle Fuel power (MW) Fuel PM separator Emission factor (mg/MJ) Number of plants
Poltinpoltto <5 Heavy oil partly syklone 20-90 300
Poltinpoltto 5-15 Heavy oil partly syklone 10-70 200
Poltinpoltto 15-50 Heavy oil partly syklone 5-40 100
Poltinpoltto <5 Light oil - <10 20
Poltinpoltto 5-15 Light oil - <10 20
Poltinpoltto 15-50 Light oil - <10 10
Diesel/kaasumoottori 20-40 Heavy oil - 30-60 2
Kerrosleijukattila 5-10 Wood electric 10-70 8
Kerrosleijukattila 10-50 Wood electric 5-30 10
Kiertoleijukattila 20-40 Wood electric 5-30 4
Puuarinakattila <5 Wood syklone/electric 20-150 120
Puuarinakattila 5-10 Wood syklone/electric 20-150 50
Puuarinakattila 10-50 Wood syklone/electric 10-150 35
Kaasutuskattila 2-7 Wood syklone 50-150 5

("Taulukoissa esitetyt ominaispäästökertoimet edustavat vaihteluväliä, joiden sisällä suurin osa yksittäisten laitosten arvoista on. Vaihteluvälit perustuvat käytettävissä olevien laitostietokantojen arvoihin (VAHTI-tiedot) ja pienten polttolaitosten päästömittaustuloksiin.")


Emission factors for wood burning in small scale heating (e.g. secondary heating at houses) can be found from PUPO emission and toxicity database

Table. Emissions of wood burning in different fireplaces.[2]
Fire place Number of measurements Mean (mg/MJ) Min (mg/MJ) Max (mg/MJ)
Panospoltto 32 76 14.15 224.27
Varaava tulisija 22 80 27.97 224.27
-Perinteinen 18 91 30.75 224.27
-Moderni 3 32 27.97 36.52
Kamiinat ja muut 5 54 45.8 74.2
Kiukaat 1 168 - -
Klapikattilat 4 59 14.15 106.14
-Perinteinen 2 102 98.59 106.14
-Moderni 2 16 14.15 17.58
Poltinpoltto 49 20 5.21 89.2
Pellettipoltin 21 21 5.21 89.2
Stokeripoltin 5 15 12.21 18.71

Emission factors for greenhousegases

EFs by fuel based classification

Table 1. Fuel classification and emission factors in Finland 2010. [3] [4]. Definitions for classification of fuels and energy sources can be found here.

Code Heading Fuel-specific unit CO2 default emission factor [t/TJ] Default net calorific value (as fired) [GJ/unit] NB
1 Fossil fuels
11 Petroleum products
111 Petroleum gases
1111 Refinery gas t 54.2 * 49.7 *
1112 LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) t 65.0 46.2
112 Light distillates
1121 Naphtha t 72.7 44.3
1122 Motor gasoline t 72.9 43.0
1123 Aviation gasoline t 71.3 43.7
113 Medium distillates
1131 Kerosene (jet fuel) t 73.2 43.3
1132 Other kerosenes t 71.5 * 43.1
1133 Diesel oil t 73.6 42.8
1134 Light fuel oil (heating fuel oil) t 74.1 42.7
1135 Gasoil (for non-road use) t 73.6 * 42.8
1139 Other medium distillates t 74.1 42.7
114 Heavy distillates
1141 Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content < 1% t 78.8 41.1
1142 Heavy fuel oil, sulphur content ≥ 1% t 78.8 40.5
1143 Other heavy distillates t 79.2 * 40.2
115 Petroleum coke t 97.0 33.5
116 Recycled and waste oils t 78.8 41.0
119 Other petroleum products t 78.8 30.0
12 Coal
121 Hard coal
1211 Anthracite t 98.3 * 33.5
1212 Hard coal, bituminous t 94.6 24.6 *
122 Other coal
1221 Semi-bituminous coal, brown coal, lignite t 108.0 20.0
1222 Coal briquettes t 94.6 * 30.0
1228 Coal tar t 90.6 * 37.0
1229 Other non-specified coal t 108.0 10.0
123 Coke t 108.0 29.3
124 Coke oven gas 1000 m3 41.5 16.7
125 Blast furnace gas 1000 m3 263.7 3.8
13 Natural gas
131 Natural gas 1000 m3 55.04 36.0
2 Peat
21 Peat
211 Milled peat t 105.9 10.1
212 Sod peat t 102.0 12.3
213 Peat pellets and briquettes t 97.0 18.0 *
3 Renewable and mixed fuels
31 Biomass
311 Forest fuelwood
3111 Firewood (stems and split firewood) t 109,6 14.0 * BIO
3112 Chips from roundwood t 109,6 9.5 * BIO
3113 Forest residue chips t 109,6 9.0 * BIO
312 Industrial wood residue BIO
3121 Bark t 109,6 7.5 * BIO
3122 Sawdust, cutter shavings etc. t 109,6 8.0 * BIO
3123 Wood residue chips t 109,6 9.5 * BIO
3128 Unspecified industrial wood residue t 109,6 7.5 * BIO
3129 Other industrial wood residue t 109,6 * 8.8 * BIO
313 Black liquor and other concentrated liquors tka 109,6 11.5 * BIO
314 Other by-products from wood processing TJ 109,6 BIO
industry
315 Recovered wood t 109,6 12.0 * BIO
316 Wood pellets and briquettes t 109,6 16.0 BIO
317 Vegetable-based fuels
3171 NEW!!Reed canary grass t 100.0 14.6 BIO
3172 NEW!!Cereal crops and straw parts t 109,6 13.5 BIO
3179 NEW!! Other vegetable-based fuels t 109,6 15.0 BIO
318 Animal-based fuels t 109.6 30.0 * BIO
32 Other biofuels and mixed fuels
321 Biogas
3211 Landfill gas 1000 m3 56,1 17.0 * BIO
3212 Biogas from wastewater treatment 1000 m3 56.1 23.0 * BIO
3213 Industrial biogas 1000 m3 56.1 20.0 * BIO
3219 Other biogas 1000 m3 56.1 20.0 * BIO
322 Liquid biofuels t 77.4 30..40 BIO
323 Mixed fuels (fossil and non-fossil)
3231 Recovered fuels t 31.8 20.0 1)
3232 Demolition wood t 17.0 15.0 1)
3233 Impregnated wood (chemically treated) t 11.4 12.0 1)
3234 NEW!! Deinking sludge t 60.0 4.0 1)
3238 NEW!!Municipal waste (unsorted) t 40.0 10.0 1)
3239 Other mixed fuels t 110.0 10.0
324 Gasified waste (Product gas) 1000 m3 .. .. 2)
325 NEW!!Biosludge t 109.6 2.5 BIO
4 Other energy sources
41 Nuclear energy
411 Nuclear energy TJ
49 Others
491 Other by-products and wastes used as fuels
4911 Plastics waste t 74.1 33.0
4912 Rubber waste t 90.0 33.0
4913 Hazardous waste t 117.0 * 10.0 *
4919 Other waste t 75.0 15.0 *
492 Exothermic heat from industry TJ
493 Secondary heat from industry TJ
494 Electricity MWh
495 Steam MWh
497 NEW!!Sulphur t 0.0 10.5
498 Hydrogen 1000 m3 0.0 10.8
499 Other non-specified energy sources TJ ..

NB

BIO = biofuel, whose carbon dioxide emissions are not counted in the total emission amounts of Finland's greenhouse gases, nor are they taken into account in emissions trading.

1) CO2 factor of mixed fuels is an estimate taking into account only the share of fossil carbon.

2) Gasified waste (Product gas) is reported in the fuel categories of the source materials of gasification.

Calorific values and emission coefficients describe the properties of fuel as fired, inclusive of moisture content (except for 313, where the measurement unit is tonnes of dry matter). Calorific value of natural gas has been specified in normal conditions (0 °C and 1.013 bar).

Emission factors are updated when necessary.

(* Revised values.


Emission factors for district heating is calculated in Motiva CO2 emission calculation introductions[5]. For district heating joint production emission factor is 220 kg CO2/MWh. In this view other GHGs (CH4 or N2O) are not taken account as CO2-ekv! Emission factors by fuel based on Motiva knowledge is in table 2.

Table 2. Emission factors of CO2 by fuel[6].

Fuels kg CO2/MWh
Heavy oil 279
Light oil 267
Gas 202
Fluid gas 227
Peat 382
Coal 341
Coke 389
Wood 0


CO2 EF for electricity can be classified in two categories: purchase electricity and own production. EF for purchase electricity is the same as own electricity vendor has informed or average Finnish electricity procurement CO2 EF (= 200 kg CO2/MWh). EF for own electricity production can be used EF from table 2 (fuel based EFs). If electricity is produced in combined electricity, heating production EFs are calculated with “benefit division method”. Method is explained in Motiva introduction[7] (attachment 2).


Table 4. Average emission factors measured with differed gas analyzator (kk) and FTIR analyzator [8].

Ordinary combustion Distribution (%) Bad combustion Distribution (%) Unit
Temperature of gas 253 1 159 17 Celsius
CO2 (kk) 7.3 5 11 8  %, dry
O2 (kk) 13.3 3 8.7 14  %, dry
H2O (FTIR) 6.5 4 7.7 -  %, wet
CO (kk) 2300 10 8100 29 mg/MJ
CO (FTIR) 2000 11 5700 - mg/MJ
OGC (kk) 120 17 1700 46 mg C/MJ
OGC (FTIR) 160 24 1500 - mg C/MJ
CH4 (FTIR) 30 22 350 - mg C/MJ
C6H6 (FTIR) 20 27 210 - mg C/MJ


Table 5 and 6 are from Heljo et al 2005[9]. Coefficient of CO2-ekv/CO2 as 1.02 is used in transformation CO2 emission factors to CO2-ekv. factors for electricity and district heating.


Table 5. CO2 emission factors of energy use of buildings (kg CO2/MWh)

Gross of building level Dispersion Efficiency Efficienfy energy level
Light oil 267 - 0.85 314
Heavy oil 279 - 0.85 328
Wood - - - -
District heating
Separate production 226 20-500 - 226
Co-production 220 dispersion - 220
Electricity production
Average 200 - - 200
Marginal 700 700-900 - 700
or
Basic capacity 110 - - 110
Interval capacity 450 - - 450
Peak capacity 850 - - 850


Table 6. CO2-ekv emission factors of energy use of buildings (kg CO2-ekv/MWh)

Gross of building level Dispersion Efficiency Efficienfy energy level
Light oil 267 - 0.85 314
Heavy oil 279 - 0.85 328
Wood 18 - 0.6 30
District heating
Separate production 231 20-500 - 231
Co-production 224 dispersion - 224
Electricity production
Average 204 - - 204
Marginal 714 700-900 - 714
or
Basic capacity 112 - - 112
Interval capacity 459 - - 459
Peak capacity 867 - - 867

Causality

Unit

mg/MJ

Formula

Data that have another unit than mg/MJ should be changed.

e.g. t/TJ -> mg/MJ

Result

See also

  • USEPA emission factor information web site [3]
  • Tissari et al 2009 [4]
  • PUPO loppuraportti [5]
  • Heljo et al. 2005 Rakennusten energiankulutus ja CO2-ekv päästöt Suomessa [6]
  • Motiva 2004. Yksittäisen kohteen CO2-päästöjen laskentaohjeistus sekä käytettävät CO2-päästökertoimet [7]
  • Palosuo T. 09 [8]


References