Cancer dose-responses of fish consumption

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Original author: Henna Karvonen, Foodfiles Ltd 2006.

Cancer dose-responses of fish consumption describe exposure-response functions of different cancers due to fish consumption.

Table. Evidence on the effects of fish on cancer.

Ecological, descriptive and cross-sectional studies Cohort and case-control studies Exposure data from cohort and case-control studies Interventions Exposure data from interventions Comments
Tumor incidence/ death of cancer ++ ++ Fish and fish oil + Fish oil No significant association between omega-3 fatty acids and cancer. No large-scale interventions with fish oil on cancer as primary outcome have been conducted. However, some of the large-scale interventions on CVD have reported the overall cancer incidence or mortality. Meta-analysis found no evidence on the effect of fish on cancer incidence or death of cancer.
Breast, colorectal, lung, prostate + ++ Fish and fish oil - No significant association between omega-3 fatty acids and cancer incidence
Stomach + ++ Fish - Preservation (salt) or preparation (frying, grilling) method of fish may play an important, exposing role in the etiology of stomach cancer
Thyroid ++ +++ Fish - No significant association between fish consumption and cancer incidence
Cancer treatment N.A. N.A. ++ Fish oil No effects compared to placebo on post operative complications, hospital length of stay, nutritional parameters or mortality
Tumor behavior - - - Studied only in animal models or cell cultures, omega-3 enrichment might play a favorable role in the inhibition or prevention of tumor growth in animal models

- No data, + Initial findings, ++ Replicate studies, +++ Plenty of data

References

Bosetti C, Kolonel L, Negri E, Ron E, Franceschi S, Dal Maso L, Galanti MR, Mark SD, Preston-Martin S, McTiernan A, Land C, Jin F, Wingren G, Hallquist A, Glattre E, Lund E, Levi F, Linos D, La Vecchia C: A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer. VI. Fish and shellfish consumption. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(4):375-82.

Hooper L, Thompson RL, Harrison RA, Summerbell CD, Ness AR, Moore HJ, Worthington HV, Durrington PN, Higgins JP, Capps NE, Riemersma RA, Ebrahim SB, Davey Smith G:Risks and benefits of omega 3 fats for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review. BMJ. 2006 Apr 1;332(7544):752-60.

MacLean CH, Newberry SJ, Mojica, WA, Issa A, Khanna P, Lim YW, Morton SC, Suttorp M, Tu W, Hilton LG, Garland RH, Traina SB, Shekelle PG. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cancer. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 113. (Prepared by the Southern California. Evidence-based Practice Center, under Contract No. 290-02-0003.) AHRQ Publication No. 05-E010-2. Rockville, MD. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. February 2005.

MacLean CH, Newberry SJ, Mojica WA, Khanna P, Issa AM, Suttorp MJ, Lim YW, Traina SB, Hilton L, Garland R, Morton SC: Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review. JAMA 2006 295: 403-415

Terry PD, Rohan TE, Wolk A: Intakes of fish and marine fatty acids and the risks of cancer of the breast and prostate and of other hormone-related cancers: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77:532-43.