Cancer dose-responses of fish consumption

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Original author: Henna Karvonen, Foodfiles Ltd 2006.

Cancer dose-responses of fish consumption describe exposure-response functions of different cancers due to fish consumption.

Table. Evidence on the effects of fish on cancer.

Ecological, descriptive and cross-sectional studies Cohort and case-control studies Exposure data from cohort and case-control studies Interventions Exposure data from interventions Comments
Tumor incidence/ death of cancer ++ ++ Fish and fish oil + Fish oil No significant association between omega-3 fatty acids and cancer. No large-scale interventions with fish oil on cancer as primary outcome have been conducted. However, some of the large-scale interventions on CVD have reported the overall cancer incidence or mortality. Meta-analysis found no evidence on the effect of fish on cancer incidence or death of cancer.
Breast, colorectal, lung, prostate + ++ Fish and fish oil - No significant association between omega-3 fatty acids and cancer incidence
Stomach + ++ Fish - Preservation (salt) or preparation (frying, grilling) method of fish may play an important, exposing role in the etiology of stomach cancer
Thyroid ++ +++ Fish - No significant association between fish consumption and cancer incidence
Cancer treatment N.A. N.A. ++ Fish oil No effects compared to placebo on post operative complications, hospital length of stay, nutritional parameters or mortality
Tumor behavior - - - Studied only in animal models or cell cultures, omega-3 enrichment might play a favorable role in the inhibition or prevention of tumor growth in animal models

- No data, + Initial findings, ++ Replicate studies, +++ Plenty of data


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