User:Zahra Shirani

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Homework 1

1a

←--#: . Good. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 08:21, 20 April 2017 (UTC)

  • What is the main purpose of environmental health assessment?

In environmental health the features of the environment in which we live such as biological, chemical and physical factors are studied and the impact of these features on the health of human beings is taken into consideration. Therefore, the main purpose of environmental health assessment is to progress the deliberate plans of actions that guide environmental decisions aimed at desired outcomes on human health and well being and to provide valuable data for policy makers in order to assess them so that during policy making they will have the opportunity to use the preferable options which are available. In other words an environmental health assessment is a tool for identification and prediction of health impacts before the implementation of an activity and thus negative health impacts can be prevented and/or controled and positive health impacts are enhanced.

  • What is shared understanding?

Shared understanding is defined as a situation in which the individuals taking part can comprehend the decision options, the results that are favorable and the main goals that are followed. The facts, the opinions and the opinions against the decisions should be manifested for all the members taking part as well. In addition, the reason in which a specific decision is taken has to be clear. Not every individual should agree with the final decision and the result has to be written and shared with everyone.

  • What are co-creation skills?

Co-creation skills and facilitation are all the specific capabilities and skills that are required for practicing the open policy. The members taking part in the policy making can have these skills and if not the individuals having the skills can be rented from outside. A few of the skills that are found to be crucial can be named as encouragement, synthesis, open data, and modelling.

1- Encouragement is utilized to build an atmosphere that is supportive and in which taking part in the task is convenient. In addition to making the process conceivable in an operative approach.

2- Synthesis in which the data are combined so that they are useful and accessible for further use by future projects.

3- Open data modifies the data that are available to a form that can be utilized by assessment models in a practical approach.

4- Modelling is used in order to construct the assessment models; modular working, developing models as well as assessing the uncertainties.

1b : Learning the terms in Quizlet

All the tests were done, a novel method for learning

1c : Introduction to critical thinking

The videos were watched and the tests were done completely. I got new info about validity and soundness.

1d : Introduction to probabilities

Done, new approach for learning.

Homework 2

[9]

Homework 3

Task a

Materials for section a, b and c were read mostly, unfortunately the class for this section has ended but I think it's part of the homework to inform the parts that have not been clear although there is a definition for all of them:

Quasi-likelihood ----#: . Quasi-likelihood is a statistical method to allow for more dispersion than what a typical probability distribution would predict. It can be used in regression analyses with binary data. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 08:21, 20 April 2017 (UTC)

Bootstrap ----#: . Bootstrap is a method for e.g. estimating confidence intervals by resampling the observations from a study with replacement. This produces a large set of results with the same size as the original study, and they can be used for calculating statistical parameters. Fun fact: the name of bootstrapping originates from Baron Munchausen who was claimed to pull himself out of a swamp by pulling his own bootstraps (which is of course physically impossible). (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 08:21, 20 April 2017 (UTC)

EDx ----#: . ED50 or effective dose 50 is the dose that causes a particular effect to occur in 50 % of the tested laboratory animals. There are several similar metrices such as ED10, which is a dose that causes 10 % of animals to respond. A special case of EDx is LD50, where the effect of interest is acute lethality within 24 hours from the dosage. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 08:21, 20 April 2017 (UTC)

Task b

What is co-creation?

Co creation is when there is a beneficial interaction between the individual customer and the company in a way that causes the creation of innovative experiences and all the values are somehow made with the cooperation of both the consumer and the company not by the company alone. In this system the customer will have the ability to produce the service experience along with the firm, in order to be suiting his/her needs.

What advantage does it bring compared with more traditional decision support processes?

In this process the customer is not seen in a higher value but along with the company they work to achieve the final goal. The mistakes found along with the problems are found with the interaction of the two sides and solved in the same manner. In this process the consumers have the opportunity to talk actively and transfer their comments and they can make various experiences. Experiences are different and it is not segment of one. The consumers experience the business as is in reality and in this way more personal experiences can be built and the experience environments are innovative for more novel co-creation experiences to be constructed and they don’t require side innovations for products and services that are new.

What is the role of a facilitator, and what skills do they need?

The facilitator’s role in group problem structuring and decision option evaluation tasks can be categorized in three sections first is helping in divergent thinking by thinking about various perspective of the problem as well as their objectives. Second, the groan zone is another field in which the facilitator helps in by opening up new way for the individuals to consider for themselves. Third, is role of the facilitator to assess in convergent thinking.

The facilitator requires four essential skills such as being an active listener by for example asking indirect questions from the participants assisting with turn taking and helping in causing the debate to be balanced. The facilitator should have the ability to chart write effectively by using different material such as flipcharts and whiteboards. Third feature of a good facilitator is having the ability to manage the group dynamically and shift the power. Last but not the least contributing factor important to be in a facilitator is reaching the closure which has to be at the time the group has managed to reach the point in which ending to the proposal is required that is done for instance by stopping group discussion.

Homework 4

←--#: . Good. See comments below. Your current evaluation 1.5 / 2 points. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 16:15, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

Scope

Question

What are the impacts of climate change in Denmark? What are the developing techniques and methods to avoid negative effects of climate change as well as exploiting any positive potential in Denmark? effects of climate change in public health?

What are the developing methods and tools for evaluating the socio-economic consequences of adaptation initiatives and strategies and developing management tools?

Intended use and users

The state and municipalities which take initiatives, as well as individuals that are affected by the climate change such as citizens, businesses, city planners and the construction sector. In addition it can be used by everyone responsible for infrastructure and many other important players.

Participants

⇤--#: . This section is about who will participate or did participate in the making of the assessment. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 16:15, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

  • a targeted information campaign, including creation of a web portal operated by an information centre;
  • a research strategy that will include estalishment of a coordinating body to ensure that Danish climate research focuses on the adaptation question to a greater extent;
  • establishing an organizational framework, including establishing a horizontal coordination forum for adaptation that will ensure a coordinated effort among public authorities.
  • Cross-sectoral Coordination Forum for Climate Change Adaptation
  • Information centre for climate change adaptation
  • Coordinating unit for research in climate change adaptation

Boundaries

----#: . This could also contain information about the time boundaries: what time span is considered? (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 16:15, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

Geographic boundaries of the assessment are limited within the boundaries of Denmark. Although this is one way but considering the fact that climate changing is a global matter. I addition this strategy focuses on what will be attainable in the individual sectors within the next 10 years, therefore timing can be considered as a boundary as well. Lack of more detailed socio-economic analysis in order to quantify the consequences of the suggested measures.

Decisions and scenarios

----#: . This section should focus more on actual decisions and options that are considered. However, often reports are vague about these. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 16:15, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

  • Coastal management, dikes, ports etc.

With the climate change happening vigorous storms and higher water levels in the sea will be expected that will lead to more risks of flooding and higher rates of erosion in areas along the coast. Maybe for preventing erosion land owners will enhance the amount of sand and channel dredging will be increased in areas that it is required. In some areas dikes or dunes as well as harbor installations and ferry baths can be reinforced. Since it is the landowner’s responsibility to protects itself from flooding and erosion no specific rule is required in this field. However, the Danish Coastal Authority will recommend minimum heights for building footings and dike heights upon request. However,Minimum heights for building footings and dike heights upon request recommended by the Danish Coastal Authority.


  • Buildings and infrastructure

- Buildings Autonomous adaptation must be expected with regard to limiting snow-load and storm damage as well as controlling indoor climate in particular. With respect to strengthening existing buildings that is the responsibility of individual building owners. A compulsory labeling regulation can be introduced. No special, planned measures will be recommended for building extensions or renovation.

- Roads and railways Enhanced precipitation, groundwater levels, temperatures and winds will cause serious effects on the road and the road as well as the railways. For efficient drainage to occur the size of the drainage system has to be adjusted and drainage has to be done adequately. Modern safety installation will be beneficial in railway. Autonomous adaptation to climate change as well as improved maintenance is crucial as well. Road regulations and railway standards must be reviewed and revised in accord with the expected climate changes

- Sewers Precautions will be taken in order to minimise the extent of damage in the event of flooding. Payment regulations can be a motivator for property owners to undertake alternative surface-water drainage methods, such as percolation.


  • Water supply

Autonomous adaptation to climate change will be proposed when greater groundwater formation and increasing groundwater levels occur. Planning and reassessment of permits for water extraction will be undertaken sometimes Relocation of water extraction could occur as well. Socio-economic reassessment of water directives may be required in long term.


  • Energy supply

Increase in average temperatures and higher wind speeds will affect energy consumption as a result of climate change, winters lower energy for warming is required but warmer summers will need more energy for the cooling system. Increased wind speed can on the one hand lead to greater electricity production from wind turbines, but on the other hand, in storm situations wind turbines must be shut down to avoid storm damage. On the other hand district heating system can be used for producing district cooling.


  • Agriculture and forestry

Agriculture:

CO2 concentrations and temperatures will increase which will lead to a longer growing season more agricultural products and introduction of new crops as well as different disease and insect patterns and an increased need for fertilizer. Two differnt stages are required in terms of climate change Short-term adaptation by optimizing the current conditions as well as Long-term adaptation that involves changes in agriculture's structure, technology and land use, irrigation systems, etc, as well as development and adaptation of new species and types of crops.

The impacts of climate change can be taken into account in the evaluation and reassessment of existing and forthcoming regulations. Targeted research efforts into the impacts of climate change on agriculture will be required in order to make qualified economic calculations.

- Forestry Actions that can be taken include: subsidy schemes aimed at private forestry, supporting the use of more robust hardwood species, well-suited provenances and cultivation of varied forests with subsidies for good. In future by assessing the climate change effects substantial steps can be taken for close-to-nature management in order to convert the national forests to close-to-nature forestry.


  • Fisheries

climate change will cause various effects on different species of fish. The fishing sector is expected to develop new equipment, methods and types of boats concurrently with the altered fishing possibilities. updated tools (models and databases) that can be used to quantify and qualify the meaning of climate change for the sea's food chains, ecosystems and fish stocks and their sustainable exploitation is required to be developed and Dissemination of the current knowledge on the character and extent of climate change is essential as well as socio-economic analyses in several areas.


  • Nature management

Adaptation to climate change in all sectors should take place with concern for nature and the environment. An evaluation should be made of whether the existing regulations for strategic environmental assessments (SEA) and environmental impact assessments (EIA) are sufficiently inclusive from the perspective of adaptation to climate change.

Information and guidelines for municipalities on green corridors will be needed as well as economic analysis in a number of areas.


  • Land use planning

Conscientious planning of land use will be conducted

  • Health

public prevention and treatment programmes and monitoring systems will be required in connection with more heat waves, altered infectious disease patterns as well as increasing occurrence of allergies and accidents and any increased occurrence of skin cancer in the future climate.

Climate change may require reprioritisation or adjustment of information campaigns, there may be a need for socio-economic analyses as well.

  • Rescue preparedness

Rescue preparedness can be deployed in actions to prevent, limit and aid injuries and damage to people, property and the environment. Continuous adaptation in the form of improving equipment can also be taken into consideration.

  • Insurance aspects

Timing

⇤--#: . Here timing means when the assessment work is done. The time span that is looked at in the assessment belongs to Boundaries. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 16:15, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

This strategy focuses on what will be attainable in the individual sectors within the next 10 years. By "attainable" is meant that a measure should be scientifically, technically and socio-economically appropriate for implementation within the given period. Different sections have there specific time table for instance energy supply is characterised by a typical investment horizon of 10–30 years. Agriculture observed climate changes over a period of at least 30 years and in relation to expected climate changes over a relevant period, depending on the character of the analysis.

Answer

Results

----#: . Results typically contain comparisons of different decision options: what changes if option B is implemented rather than A? (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 16:15, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

  • Coastal , dikes and ports management will lead to less risks of flooding and lower rates of erosion in areas along the coast.

- Buildings and infrastructure limiting snow-load and storm damage as well as controlling indoor climate in particular.

- Roads and railways: efficient drainage of roads and railways will occur by adjusting the size of the drainage system and drainage being done adequately.

- Sewers the extent of damage in the event of flooding will be minimized.

  • Water supply

adequate, safe water supply for the citizens will be provided.

  • Energy supply

wind turbines will be used for producing electricity. District heating system will be used for producing district cooling.

  • Agriculture and forestry

Agriculture:

Short-term adaptation by optimizing the current conditions as well as Long-term adaptation that involves changes in agriculture's structure, technology and land use, irrigation systems, etc, as well as development and adaptation of new species and types of crops that will lead to higher number of crops as well as safer agriculture system as well as qualified economic calculations.

- more robust hardwood species, well-suited provenances and cultivation of varied forests with subsidies for good as well as close-to-nature management and converting the national forests to close-to-nature forestry.

  • Fisheries

The fishing sector will develop new equipment, methods and types of boats concurrently with the altered fishing possibilities. updated tools (models and databases) that can be used to quantify and qualify the meaning of climate change for the sea's food chains, ecosystems and fish stocks and their sustainable exploitation will be developed and Dissemination of the current knowledge on the character and extent of climate change.

  • Nature management and Land use planning will be conducted.
  • Health

public health will be safe from heat waves, altered infectious disease patterns as well as increasing occurrence of allergies and accidents and any increased occurrence of skin cancer in the future climate.


  • Rescue preparedness will be taken into consideration along with Insurance aspects

Conclusions

By the following measurements adaptation to the climate change will occur in Denmark's country and the risk of confronting the negative aspects will be reduced and even changed into a potential for further economical value for the country by for example increasing the agricultural products.

Rationale

Stakeholders

- Denmark country

- Government and authorities

- Citizens of Denmark

- Land owners

- Property owners

- Specialist and scientists

- Several organizations and business people such as insurance companies

Dependencies

----#: . Dependencies contain information that makes a reader convinced that the results and conclusions are correct and relevant. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 16:15, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

  • Predicting Costs incurred by governments to face the impacts of climate change so that the decision is supported by economic data by following the past trends.
  • Development of climate scenarios based on models that can suggest a predictive model assisting the design of the risk assessment in order to be more realistic.
  • Progressive implementation of adaptation initiatives that can start in public lands, key ecosystems and more flexible activities and economic sectors to help minimize social, political and ecological trade-offs and avoid committing to a dramatic strategy prematurely.

Analyses

Indices

Calculations

See also

References

Danish strategy for adaptation to a changing climate [1]

  1. Danish strategy for adaptation to a changing climate.

Related files

Homework 5

←--#: . Good. 1.5 / 2 points. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 19:47, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

• What are the aims/goals of the strategy/program, i.e. what are the desired impacts and outcomes striven for?

----#: . Here you could be more concise and focus on the objectives. Now you also describe problems and actions. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 19:47, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

Science has mentioned that due to climate changes nation will have to confront extreme weather events such as drought, hurricanes and melting of glaciers that will lead to raising of sea levels in order to confront these significant changes and adapt to them the structures of these strategy have been constructed. In addition, the government is willing to include the information about the climate that is expected in future in the planning and initiatives of today. The main aim is to naturally sustain a society that is sustainable in terms of environment, society and economy and finally the government proposes to adapt Denmark in time therefore the strategy will be ensuring that climate change is incorporated into planning and development so that public authorities, businesses and citizens have the best possible basis for considering whether, how and when climate change should be taken into account The anticipated effects and outcomes can be divided into various sectors:


Coastal management: As a result of sea levels rising and more storms happening adaptation to climate change is expected if the current safety levels as well as operational conditions are remained as they are. Constructing new constructions or renovation of previous dikes and ports might be required due to the amount of the risk that will be expected to occur. Buildings and constructions: Indoor climate will be an issue that should be considered precisely specially issues regarding temperature as well as humidity. May be new constructions will be required for confronting heat waves in order to reduce the temperature in extreme situations indoor. A compulsory labeling rule might be necessary for small individual cooling units. Constriction technicians can be taught by some information campaigns about the design parameters that might be used in future. In addition, road regulations as well as rail standards can be adapted with the new conditions.Road drainage has to be considered in situation which there is more than regular precipitation. Risk analysis is required if there are vigorous winds being blown followed by safety installations and signal boxes along the railway tracks.


Water supply: For adapting with the climate change in terms of drinking water reorganization of water extraction has to take place which require information about the groundwater resources that are available in future as well as the flow as well as the quality of the watercourses and wetlands.


Energy supply: Replacement as well as adaptation of the plants is essential due to lower heat consumption in colder winters and more cooling during the warmer summers. More renewable energy will be produced. Agriculture and forestry: The growing season will increase therefore new crops will arise that will require more fertilizers and produce more products. More insects will be in the environment that will lead to the use of more pesticides. Therefore the current regulations will be adapted to the environmental policy goals. Close to nature forestry will be a priority in forestry actions by practicing natural forest management instead of managing private forests. Moreover, drainage and irrigation patterns will be modified due to modification in the precipitation patterns.


Fishery: New management systems for the altered fishing system will be adapted and developed. new models and databases will be required for quantifying and qualifying the climate modifications. Fish and shellfish cultivation will be structured again in fresh and salt water.


Nature management: Regulation assessing the environmental effects need to be adapted to climate change and e adjusted. River valleys will be modified into natural wetlands. There will be programs for reducing the depletion of oxygen that is available in the sea and there will bout the regulations in order to combat the invasive species. Municipalities have to be informed about the guidance programmes regarding climate change.


Land use planning: A risk map will be provided in which includes relevant risk analysis. Actions in order to prevent flooding will be taken by risk management plans.


Health: Adaptation programmes including the ones that are required for public health emergency management as well as treatment and prevention of diseases and monitoring the health problems in which individuals might occur during the emergency conditions. More attention should be paid to targeted risk groups. Rescue preparedness: Adaptation of rescue preparedness will continue. The state of the action will be tested which will include happenings that are related to weather and there will be attention to the current advisory efforts.


Insurance aspects: Higher premiums as well as coverage exemptions will be mentioned by the insurance companies in order to adapt with the climate change and new financial instruments will be introduced in order to transfer the risk transfer among the insurance companies and the other financial sector.


o Who are those that benefit if the aims/goals of the strategy/program are reached?


Since climate change in expected to have wide-ranging impacts, strategies and programs related to this field will have benefits for all the citizens specially the state and municipalities which take initiatives, as well as individuals that are affected by the climate change such as businesses, city planners and the construction sector. In addition it can be used by everyone responsible for infrastructure and many other important players.

o What are the actions that are needed/intended to take in order to progress towards the aims/goals?

----#: . You talk about a portal a lot but you haven't described what it is and how it relates to the actions. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 19:47, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

General and time goal-oriented information campaign by for example establishment of a web portal for climate change adaptation in order to change the attitude of the citizens by allowing them to timely adapt to climate change and inspire the stake holders. In addition, more research on the consequences of climate change and adaptation-relevant research and technological development, including socio-economic research will be required. The portal will be the entry point for information on trends in a number of climate variables and a number of oceanographic data. Information such as terrain elevation and groundwater conditions will also be available on the portal. In the portal, examples of how the decision process can be structured will be given and it will provide easy access to the latest knowledge of the subject and be developed so it can be used by authorities, business people, specialists and citizens, therefore the portal will assist the support of autonomous adaptation.

Research strategy is needed in order to comprehend the climate conditions in the future as well as the changes that will influence Denmark in the following years. There is a need for climate research to focus to a larger extent on the question of adaptation.

will launch initiatives to promote:

o Who are those that actually realize these actions? The government and the authorities of Denmark along with the municipalities that related to the climate change.

o What are the decisions that are needed to make in order to enable/promote the actions?

⇤--#: . Here you should be more brief and focussed. What decisions lead to right actions? (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 19:47, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

  • Development of modelling tools for socio-economic evaluation of measures in the climate change adaptation area to the extent they do not already exist; and
  • Establishment of a coordinating unit for research in climate change adaptation that will create better coordination and knowledge-sharing of climate change adaptation research in Denmark and in relation to the rest of the world.
  • A cross-sectoral Coordination Forum for Climate Change Adaptation with an information centre as a secretariat to see that coordination initiatives are implemented.
  • Setting up an information centre for climate change adaptation for communication.
  • Synergy effect between current and new projects is exploited.

The actions that are required to be taken are:

Adaptations to climate change that are divided into two types: autonomous and planned, the latter based on new central policy decisions. Planned adaptation measures must be compared with a reference scenario with the expected climate impacts and autonomous adaptation. Each sector has six overall parts. The first part explains the challenges that each sector confronts. Second, is the autonomous adaptation being used now as well as further adaptation that will be expected within the applicable regulations and legislation. Then is the time for modifying the legislation or regulations to guarantee effective autonomous and planned adaptation in the extensive term. To demonstrate the goal of the future adaptation effort wherever it is probable examples are given of specific proposals for planned changes in extensions/renovations. In the next level targeted information campaign is required for giving inspiration to the different stakeholders which are confronting the same issues. Finally, a detailed socio-economic analysis is required to quantify the consequences of the suggested measures. These analyses will constitute an important part of the future decision basis for implementing measures, the main purpose of which is climate change adaptation.

Coastal management:

Land owners protect themselves from flooding and erosion by for instance regular beach nourishment with sand, individual site owners just increase the amount of sand to correspond to actual needs as well as reinforcing dikes/dunes or adapting harbour installations and ferry berths and channel dredging. The Danish Coastal Authority will recommend minimum heights for building footings and dike heights upon request. Other adaptation measures will need socio-economic analysis of the degree to which the coastal area must be adapted to future climate change and how such adaptation can be effected. • Buildings and infrastructure

Buildings Autonomous adaptation must be expected with regard to limiting snow-load and storm damage as well as controlling indoor climate in particular. With respect to strengthening existing buildings that is the responsibility of individual building owners. A compulsory labeling regulation can be introduced. No special, planned measures will be recommended for building extensions or renovation. - Roads and railways Enhanced precipitation, groundwater levels, temperatures and winds will cause serious effects on the road and the road as well as the railways. For efficient drainage to occur the size of the drainage system has to be adjusted and drainage has to be done adequately. Modern safety installation will be beneficial in railway. Autonomous adaptation to climate change as well as improved maintenance is crucial as well. Road regulations and railway standards must be reviewed and revised in accord with the expected climate changes - Sewers Precautions will be taken in order to minimise the extent of damage in the event of flooding. Payment regulations can be a motivator for property owners to undertake alternative surface-water drainage methods, such as percolation.

• Water supply Autonomous adaptation to climate change will be proposed when greater groundwater formation and increasing groundwater levels occur. Planning and reassessment of permits for water extraction will be undertaken sometimes Relocation of water extraction could occur as well. Socio-economic reassessment of water directives may be required in long term.

• Energy supply Increase in average temperatures and higher wind speeds will affect energy consumption as a result of climate change, winters lower energy for warming is required but warmer summers will need more energy for the cooling system. Increased wind speed can on the one hand lead to greater electricity production from wind turbines, but on the other hand, in storm situations wind turbines must be shut down to avoid storm damage. On the other hand district heating system can be used for producing district cooling.

• Agriculture and forestry Agriculture: CO2 concentrations and temperatures will increase which will lead to a longer growing season more agricultural products and introduction of new crops as well as different disease and insect patterns and an increased need for fertilizer. Two differnt stages are required in terms of climate change Short-term adaptation by optimizing the current conditions as well as Long-term adaptation that involves changes in agriculture's structure, technology and land use, irrigation systems, etc, as well as development and adaptation of new species and types of crops. The impacts of climate change can be taken into account in the evaluation and reassessment of existing and forthcoming regulations. Targeted research efforts into the impacts of climate change on agriculture will be required in order to make qualified economic calculations. - Forestry Actions that can be taken include: subsidy schemes aimed at private forestry, supporting the use of more robust hardwood species, well-suited provenances and cultivation of varied forests with subsidies for good. In future by assessing the climate change effects substantial steps can be taken for close-to-nature management in order to convert the national forests to close-to-nature forestry.

• Fisheries Climate change will cause various effects on different species of fish. The fishing sector is expected to develop new equipment, methods and types of boats concurrently with the altered fishing possibilities. updated tools (models and databases) that can be used to quantify and qualify the meaning of climate change for the sea's food chains, ecosystems and fish stocks and their sustainable exploitation is required to be developed and Dissemination of the current knowledge on the character and extent of climate change is essential as well as socio-economic analyses in several areas.

• Nature management Adaptation to climate change in all sectors should take place with concern for nature and the environment. An evaluation should be made of whether the existing regulations for strategic environmental assessments (SEA) and environmental impact assessments (EIA) are sufficiently inclusive from the perspective of adaptation to climate change. Information and guidelines for municipalities on green corridors will be needed as well as economic analysis in a number of areas.

• Land use planning Conscientious planning of land use will be conducted • Health - Altered/increased monitoring and outbreak control and prevention and treatment of various infections, including those due to pests, insects and bacteria; - Diagnostics, prevention and treatment including vaccination and preventive treatment of pollen and house dust mite allergies and mould allergies public prevention and treatment programmes and monitoring systems will be required in connection with more heat waves, altered infectious disease patterns as well as increasing occurrence of allergies and accidents and any increased occurrence of skin cancer in the future climate. Climate change may require reprioritisation or adjustment of information campaigns, there may be a need for socio-economic analyses as well. • Rescue preparedness Rescue preparedness can be deployed in actions to prevent, limit and aid injuries and damage to people, property and the environment. Continuous adaptation in the form of improving equipment can also be taken into consideration. • Insurance aspects

o Who are the decision makers?

The government, Ministry of Climate and Energy and Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) on the basis of support from the Danish Council for Strategic Research.

o What direct or indirect health impacts, positive or negative, these decisions and actions (may) have?

----#: . This is about health impacts of actions, not of climate change. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 19:47, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. ... In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding The impacts of erosion on cropping lands include: reduced ability of the soil to store water and nutrients. Exposure of subsoil, which often has poor physical and chemical properties. Higher rates of runoff, shedding water and nutrients otherwise used for crop growth therefore people eating the crops will face malnutrition. Impacts of adding soil to prevent erosion on air quality, Soil particles blown by the wind into the air have a major impact on human and animal health. Hand district heating system used for cooling causes pollutant emission and there will be a correlation between air quality and health risk. Development and adaptation of new species and types of crops will lead to different disease and insect patterns and an increased need for fertilizer that will cause animal bites and infection diseases caused by the insects and health impacts caused by the use of fertilizers, Depending on the amount of fertilizer consumed, it may cause disturbances of the kidneys, lungs and liver and even cause cancer. This is due to the toxic metals that fertilizers have. Allergies may increase as a matter of increased heat and increased amount of pollens in the air. Heat waves can cause dehydration and sunburns. Warmer summers will cause greater growth of toxic algae and some saltwater bacteria, which can pose a risk to people with weakened immune systems.

o Where and how do these impacts take place, who are those that face these health impacts in practice?

The community, the citizens and over all the whole population of Denmark in which the health impacts can be affecting the neighbourhood countries as well as the whole globe.


o Are the health impacts big or small in relation to other impacts (e.g. economical, social, climate, other environmental, ...)?

Although it is crucial to consider the health impacts but their impacts are considered to be low in comparison with the other sectors specially to the environment sector.


o Do the intended policies result in win-win, win-lose, lose-win, or lose-lose situations with regard to health and other impacts?

They are considered to be win-win since health impacts and other effects would be much higher if these policies were not taken and they are somehow seen to be preventive as well as an adaptation to the climate change.

• Formulate a plausible and meaningful specific assessment question that takes account of (some of) the aspects considered in above questions.

What are the assessment techniques and methods to assess the climate change impacts in order to be sustainable and simultaneously avoid negative health effects of climate change as well as exploiting any positive potential in Denmark?

• Extra question: In what ways your answers do or do not represent "shared understanding"? (The climate program/strategy can be considered a compilation of contributions by many experts and attempting to reflect the views and needs of different decision makers and stakeholders).

----#: . Large participation per se does not mean that different stakeholder views were understood. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 19:47, 21 September 2017 (UTC)

More development is required by using the novel researches performed in the field of climate change and in addition, many individuals, organizations and governmental bodies took part in this adaptation strategy therefore, the strategy has tried to take use of the regulations of the shared understanding

Homework 6

←--#: . Very good. 2/2 points (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 20:08, 26 September 2017 (UTC)

6a

  • Who are the relevant participants of the assessment? and their roles?

----#: . Here you explain in detail what actions each participant may or will take. However, the focus could be more on their role in producing information or discussing in the assessment. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 20:08, 26 September 2017 (UTC)

Danish Ministery for the Environment, The Danish Road Directorate, Municipalities, Danish Coastal Authority, Danish state, The Danish National Board of Health, Danish Health and Medicines Authority, Danish Emergency Management Agency(DEMA),Danish Fire and Rescue Service, Danish Water and Waste Water Association.


• Danish Water and Waste Water Association


integrated water management in order to accommodate the future demand for water for both humans and the environment, an integrated approach to the water cycle to find solutions that best accommodate the various needs.

Managing the need for irrigation to minimize the effect of the stress caused in summer period on the natural ecosystems as well as managing water abstraction.

Increasing the flow of water in affected areas, in order to decrease the excessive growth of algae. Renovation and development of Sewage and drainage systems. Moreover, in urban planning the opportunity of storing rain water in green areas will be taken into consideration. Adaptation measures for reducing damages caused by flooding in rural areas which at the same time enhance the situation of the aquatic environment includes removal of drains, weed cutting, water course maintenance and conversion of farmland to wetland.


• Danish Ministry of the Environment

Nature restoration and the further protection of nature from society will help preserve Denmark's natural habitats. Mitigation of and adaptation to the effects of climate change should preferably be through nature management, and by integrating nature and environment management as part of the solution in all sectors. Habitat types will be saved by establishing compensatory habitats in order to adapt to high sea level rises as an effect of climate change River valleys have to be embanked and straightened in connection with cultivation projects as well as drainage of land. Re-establishing opportunities for natural flooding in river valleys produces a buffer in order to confront harmful flooding.

Natural restoration of peat bogs and other wetlands can help decrease climate change, especially in the long periods

Plant and animal species will be protected.


• The Danish National Board of Health

They will first give regulations for constructing buildings resistance to moisture for preventing production of mould and as a result health problems in the form of mucous membrane irritation, headache, coughing and fatigue the health authorities will provide medical support for the affected individuals.

Adapting to the expected climate changes such as the spread of contagious diseases, Diseases spread by insects, Water-borne infections such as disease caused by Vibrio vulnificus and Weil's disease (Leptospirosis) and Food-borne infections by strengthening efforts to prevent food-borne infections in order to make consumers safe in future since most food-borne infections such as Salmonellosis, Campylobacteriosis and Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) show clear seasonal variations. Moreover, warmer summers and milder winters can mean that pollen seasons are prolonged for allergens such as hazel, alder, birch, grass and sageworts. The health authorities provided houses and some public areas with strong air filtrates and tried to substitute trees that cause allergens with ones that have the lower amount of pollens. preventing risk of skin cancer due to warmer climate which enhances the risk of sunburn and dehydration by informing individuals and providing shelters in areas with higher risks.


• The Danish Road Directorate

Will take part in managing the national road network and a way that is responsible and professional in order to confirm both the safety and flow of the traffic. protects road surfaces and equipment against increased temperatures and stronger winds, manage flooding, make improvements to roads and infrastructures and finally prevent the events that are climate-related across the entire national road network

• Danish Energy Agency

The Danish distribution grid is cabled underground in order to cause less significant consequences of climate change. Adapting the energy Production to new framework conditions and to a certain extent to altered climatic conditions, investment in wind turbines and thus expansion of this energy source, using the district heating system to produce district cooling. District Heating and Cooling, Flexible co-generation of electrical and thermal energy, Integrating upgraded biogas and heat pumps.

• The Danish AgriFish Agency

implementing Changes in cultivation practice, plant protection based on altered disease and insect patterns, higher use and demand of fertilizers as a result of their runoff into the water, changes in agriculture's structure, technology and land use, irrigation systems, etc, as well as development and adaptation of new species and types of crops, restrictions on cultivation of low-lying areas and on irrigation in dry summers.

• Danish Nature Agency

In relation to forestry's climate change the Agency will conduct adaptation strategies, in case of the risk of an increase in the frequency and strength of storms. reducing some species such as Norway spruce and Sitka spruce, in favor of a number of native deciduous species for example, oak, beech, ash and Sycamore maple. most important is the responsibility to process adaptation for Mixed forests and close-to-nature forest management.

• Businesses and individuals


reduce the pressure on sewer systems locally by: confirming percolation of rainwater through the soil, guaranteeing water collection, warranting the water can run into lakes, wither existing or reconstructed.


• The municipalities

designing guidelines for designating areas as urban zones or as summer cottage areas in the municipal plan. In this connection, topographical and geological conditions may be taken into consideration, so that water may percolate down and be led away.

In connection with urban regeneration projects, plans can be made for diverting surface water to detention basins which can be included in an overall urban architectural whole.

topographic dips can be kept clear from new development

Planning for precipitation will be conducted in In local plans by decreasing the hard surfaces permitting more rainwater to penetrate into the soil.

Along watercourses space will be produced for meanders or wetlands which postpones the water penetration and makes controlled flooding possible in connection with high water levels


  • What kind of relevant knowledge they (may) have regarding the assessment?

Each section will require its own kind of information for instance, Danish Water and Waste Water Association will require data about the flooding, the water capacity of the rivers the increase in the precipitation or raining each year. Danish Ministry of the Environment will need information about the natural habitats and the nature of the country the endangered fishes, birds and other species. The Danish Road Directorate will require data about the road network system and models to anticipate the traffic flow in the future as well as GIS maps for allocating the new modified features and so on.


  • What needs and aims do they represent in the assessment?

Each participant has its specific goals for instance Danish Water and Waste Water Association aim is wisely managing the surface and groundwater resources to content the needs of human activities as well as the environment and the ecosystems in an approach that is both equitable and sustainable while the Danish Ministry of the Environment has the same concerns in a broader view for birds, fishes other species to be safe in long term as well as the nature to be sustain-ably used and remained safe for the future generations and decrease the negative impact or global warming and climate change as much as possible. The Danish National Board of Health aim is to increase the role of primary health care in disease prevention and diagnosis and providing health and social care in times of crisis. The Danish Road Directorate to enhance mobility in the network system that is effective, harmless, secure and is friendly for the environment in a sustainable approach to prevent it from being damaged because of climate change. Danish Energy Agency adapting to the new conditions caused by climate change and using the novel condition to provide efficient energy for the Danish population. Businesses and individuals are more considered about the economic matters.

6b

←--#: . Very good. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 20:08, 26 September 2017 (UTC)

  • How could the relevant participants be involved in the assessment in an effective way?

Participants require a mean to share their knowledge the participants representative feedback is crucial in validating data and forecasts. Gatherings and repeated hearings and discussions among the participants agents can be significant in transferring the obtained data.

Moreover, there should be a mean for the participants to communicate effectively. Using Different Channels such as media and radio and electronic media for instance a website that can have minor cost advantages and its role can be a primary focus for campaigns and a source of contact for the target audience and the best advantage is that it can be updated regularly. Even creating pages in social media have revealed to be beneficial in sharing different ideas.

There should be collaboration between the member of the assessment since issues regarding to climate change are all somehow related to one another and decisions taken in one section may affect the final evaluation taken in other sections.

  • How can the quality of an assessment be assured if anyone can participate?

The assessment can provide credibility through endorsement of third parties, the participants need to have adequate qualification which should be reported, transparency is an important feature which should reveal the methods, data and assumptions that were utilized as well as mentioning the used resources. In addition, peer reviewing and comparison of replicate assessments with previous models conducted by different countries and organizations can offer validity for the assessment. The assessment has to be based on an anticipated framework which can be followed during the process.

  • How can you prevent malevolent contributions where the purpose is to vandalise the process?

International laws, regulations, codes and relevant frameworks can be implemented in the assessment, an advisory board must be involved in the project, which detects the risks to and from participants from specific research activities and develops a strategy and process for preventing, reducing and dealing with these risks.

  • How can you make the outcome converge to a conclusion, because all issues are uncertain and controversial?

Collaboration, negotiation, communication of the members of the assessment can be beneficial. Consultation with participants can work as a solution for controversial issues. Principles of the assessment can be mentioned and based on them a particular framework or model can be used as reference. A third party or organization that has sufficient knowledge about the assessment can be questioned to reach a final decision.

  • How can you ensure that the outcomes are useful for the users?

It must be incorporated into the overall policy strategy of governments, to be able to be linked into the current plans rules and procedures, it should be linked to urban planning. Next, evaluate the assessment has to be evaluated periodically in order to Improve the assessments design and implementation and to demonstrates its success or progress, which will lead to the progress of objectives that are more effective and efficient. it is important for the assessment to be economically beneficial and increase the economic growth and the well-being of the citizens.

Homework 8

←--#: . Very good. 2/ 2 points. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 08:12, 6 November 2017 (UTC)



Question

What problems and benefits will happen if congestion charge is applied on roads among typical users for example drivers?

Previous suggestions and related discussion are on the talk page. R↻

Boundaries

The question can be considered generally but for the purpose of the congestion charge assessment the borders are set by the countries located in the EU province. The existing situations as well as the accessible data which can be updated are considered in the effects of congestion charges.

Answer

No decent answer is approved for this question. Some people consider it as an opportunity to shift into precise alternatives while mostly as seen in reports individual choices has shifted into other possibilities rather than using vehicles in the roads.

Rationale

←--#: . Your rationale is a very nice summary of studies about modal shifts due to congestion charges. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 08:20, 4 October 2017 (UTC)

An individual’s choice among various modes of transportation is not simple nor based just on monetary costs; concerns such as transit times, waiting times, reliability, comfort, privacy, and security also factor into the decision. While on the surface it may seem transit fares would need to be less than the imposed congestion charge in order to incent commuters to switch to public transit, this may not be the case because the congestion charge is only one component of the monetary cost of driving. Moreover, the objective effects of the charges cause two types of perceived effects. First, there are direct effects on the individual, such as changed travel costs and travel times. Naturally, these effects depend on the individual's travel behavior. Second, there are “social” effects, system level effects that do not directly affect the individual. It is known, however, that not only direct, individual effects but also such “system” or “social” effects affect attitudes. [1]

Schmöcker et al. (2005) identified a change in the shopping frequency after the implementation of a congestion charge [2] Study performed in 2008 in Stockholm revealed that trial Trips going through the cordon depend more on the gender. Almost half of the women change to a different mode, whereas 70 % of the men continue using their car [3]

In a study performed in Gothenburg, the adaptation strategies, however, differ between commuting and discretionary trips. The 9000 commuters priced off the road apparently switched to public transport, increasing by 12,000 trips [4] Among discretionary travelers the main adaptation strategies are changing destination and reducing trip frequency. In fact, the number of public transport trips even reduced. The congestion charges have not had any measurable impact on the market share for cycling [5]

The individual choice and behavior observed in Stockholm are remarkably similar to those observed in Gothenburg: commuters diverted to public transport and discretionary travelers adapted in other ways [6] A study in the spring of 2006 showed most drivers were unaware that they had reduced their trips across the Stockholm congestion charging cordon. Moreover, there are many other changing processes going on. People move and change jobs, for example: between any two years, 20‐25% of the workforce will have changed jobs (or started working), and 15‐20% of the population will have moved [7] In another study behaviors of travelers, including car drivers and motorcyclists, in response to in-town congestion charge in Taipei City were modeled in order to propose feasible in-town congestion charge scheme accordingly. The estimation results showed the existence of correlation among alternatives and heterogeneity for car drivers. Additionally, results revealed that motorcyclists are much more sensitive to the charge than car drivers [8]

Dependencies

User:Zahra Shirani(Available data on individual choices and behavior due to effects of congestion charge)
ObsYearCitydifferent choices parameterbehavior effected due to congestion charge implmentation
12008LondonThe amount of pedal cyclesincreased by 66%
22008LondonBuses and coachesincreased by 31%
32006LondonCars and minicabsreduced by 36%
42006StockholmPublic transportincreased by 4‐5%
52005StockholmCars and minicabsdecreased by 22%
62013Göteborgtraffic flowdecreased by 20%
72005Londonshopping in the shops in the congestion95.5% shop less often
82004Londontraffic flowreduced by 12%

Formula

See also

Keywords

Congestion charge, Individual choices and behavior, EU countries

References

[10]

Related files

Homework 9

←--#: . Very good. 2 / 2 points. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 07:14, 27 September 2017 (UTC)

1. Evaluation by Edem Agbenowu of assessment draft.


Table 1. Characterization of the assessment
Attribute Characterization
Impacts The environmental and health effects that occur as a result of climate change are considered in the assessment as well as the adaptations that have take place in Ireland. water supply, flood alleviation, energy infrastructure and review of current engineering standards in Ireland are mentioned to be the key focus in the environmental section.
Causes Climate change or global warming, for instance causing serious imbalance among the areas with high rainfalls and areas that have the water shortage and the pollution of the water sources.
Problem owner the individuals that are interested in the assessment to be conducted and might be responsible in performing it is mentioned to be the researchers and experts in the field water supply, the scientists, the policy experts and administrators from all parts of Ireland.
Target The target group in which will use the assessment are the bodies, working in the decision making sector as well as the authorities that will implement the results into their vital decisions.
Interaction The participants taking part in the assessment has been indicated but the scale of the interaction among them might be shared participation, since it has not been stated.
Table 2. Dimensions of openness
Dimension Characterization
Scope of participation Researchers and experts in the field water supply, scientists, scientific experts, citizens of the republic of Ireland, policy experts and administrators from all parts of Ireland.
Access to information Access to information for the participants is not considered.
Timing of openness The assessment is supposed to occur immediately since the experts believe this is a co-ordinated longterm all island climate change adaptation plan in order to prevent the upcoming damages caused by global warming or climate change.
Scope of contribution High-level strategic co-ordination that will take place in both jurisdictions in Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland as well as with the Government bodies to co-ordinate implementation of required actions, Engineers and climate change researchers collaboration for identifying the climatic parameters critical to infrastructure it can be considered that other participants take part in the assessment similarly.
Impact of contribution impact on climate change on these infrastructure will be avoided by new infrastructure that are designed in a way to cope with the changing weather. Engineers and climate change researchers collaboration will help to identify the climatic parameters critical to infrastructure so that their research will enable the engineering profession to amend current design standards, A long-term plan in both the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland will ensure that necessary infrastructure provided will be timely and appropriate.

Planning on water supply will result in finding alternate sources of water so that when one source for example is affected my changing climate ,there will be other options. ⇤--#: . The focus here is on the use and impact of the information that is collected from the participants during the assessment. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 07:14, 27 September 2017 (UTC)

Table 3. Evaluation of the assessment by category
Category Evaluation (1-5) Reasoning
Quality of content 4 The draft assessment has clear aims although some additional explanation in various sections would be helpful for clarification.
Applicability Relevance 3 The intended needs of the users has been considered in a logical way. The assessment report had not provided a question that can be answered although there were lots of relevant information that could be the response to a potential question.
Availability 4 The assessment was supposed to be conducted right away and it would provide the people of Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland adaptation issues, therefore it seems it is accessible for all.
Usability 5 Groups of various people have take part in preparing the report therefore it seems to be practical for them as a participant which have given their own opinions. ----#: . This is more about whether the assessment results can be used by the endusers: is the content and text understandable and clear? Can the endusers use the information and learn from it? (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 07:14, 27 September 2017 (UTC)
Acceptability 3 As mentioned in the report the recommendations might not totally be accepted or might lack implementation because some impacts of climate change are still debatable and still some measurements have to be done to really come to a concrete conclusion on the impact of climate change that will be mentioned in the report.
Efficiency 3 Since the assessment is supposed to be taken into action right away and the data of issues regarding to climate change might not be going on through the same pace and because the changes needed to be done for this adaptation require a lot of financial commitment and there are lot of participants might affect the efficiency of the report. ----#: . This considers the costs of performing the assessment rather than costs of implementing the recommended climate actions. (type: truth, paradigm: science view) --Jouni (talk) 07:14, 27 September 2017 (UTC)


2. Evaluation of the assessment of the health impacts of Assessment of building policies' effect on dampness and asthma in Europe .


Table 1. Characterization of the assessment
Attribute Characterization
Impacts the effects of different plausible building policies on dampness in homes and consequently on asthma prevalence in Europe between 2010 and 2050.
Causes decreased ventilation in aim to reduce energy consumption.
Problem owner the individuals that are interested in the assessment to be conducted and might be responsible in performing it are Intarese, Heimtsa and the assessment is an open assessment, therefore anyone is welcome to participate.
Target The target group in which will use the assessment Policy-makers in the Copenhagen / Mexico City COP-16 process and the National policy-makers.
Interaction The participants taking part in the assessment has been indicated but the scale of the interaction among them might be shared participation, since it has not been stated.
Table 2. Dimensions of openness
Dimension Characterization
Scope of participation Integrated Assessment of Health Risks of Environmental Stressors in Europe (INTARESE), Health and environment integrated methodology and toolbox for scenario assessment (HEIMTSA) and because this is an open assessment every individual and citizen can participate in it.
Access to information Access to information for the participants is possible through opasnet.
Timing of openness Even though taking part from outside was not something convenient but the Opasnet forum was supposed to be open always from the time the project was conducted until the next forty years.
Scope of contribution Since it was open assessment every individual and citizen can participate in it but the main tasks were supposed to be performed by Intarese and Heimtsa.
Impact of contribution There will be direct effect of contribution of the participants that have take part through OPASNET on the assessment.
Table 3. Evaluation of the assessment by category
Category Evaluation (1-5) Reasoning
Quality of content 4 The draft assessment has clear aims and the quality of the content is high, the questions are answered fully. If more people were informed about the applicability of the model more participation would lead to a more applicable and better results.
Applicability Relevance 3 The intended needs of the users has been considered in a logical way but their needs are not obviously mentioned in the assessment.
Availability 4 The model is obtainable through Opasnet, therefore it is accessible for all, although it will be difficult from outside to get informed about these models.
Usability 3 The content and results of the assessment are easy to comprehend and could be useful if the users are informed about it.
Acceptability 3 The model might lack implementation because more should be known about determinants of dampness-related health problems and maybe because people in general have not had the chance to participate and the benefits are still not revealed it would not be easy without explanation and evident proof.
Efficiency 4 Since the assessment mentions that more should be known about determinants of dampness-related health problems to be able to design climate-friendly building policies that also reduce dampness in homes, therefore more data is required to reach higher efficiency and A thorough examination of current knowledge was not done in this assessment. It seems obvious that collecting and organising existing information is a cost-effective way to reduce uncertainty in this issue, because that would cost only a small fraction of the value of that information according to this assessment therefore further studies was known to be highly costly.