Thermal energy need in Helsinki Metropolitan Area

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What is the thermal energy need in the future (2010-2030) in the Helsinki metropolitan area?



In 2007 9751 GWh thermal energy was consumed in district heating buildings in Helsinki Metropolitan area [1]. By using day degree method, statistics of population in the area and water consumption per inhabitant information, needed thermal energy for heat up the tap water can be calculated, which is 350 GWh in 2007.

Thus overall heat transfer coefficient U was in district heating buildings 16,08 kWh/m2 in Helsinki, 14,04 kWh/m2 in Vantaa, 15,44 kWh/m2 in Espoo and 28,58 kWh/m2 in Kauniainen. If then estimated that in district heating and other buildings have the same overall heat transfer coefficient in cities, then total thermal energy consumption can be calculated in Helsinki Metropolitan area, which was 12 413 GWh in 2007.

NOTE!!! District heating buildings are mainly apartment buildings and other buildings mainly separate residential houses. 
The U-value is higher in separate residential buildings, but because there are no a way to determine the other 
heating method buildings U-values at the moment, this estimation is made! 

For future scenarios we need to estimate how the outdoor temperature and buildings energy efficiencies will evolve. If we use Helsinki Metropolitan area Council (YTV) report for future changes of floor area and inhabitant estimations, total need of thermal energy can calculated, which is 15 150 GWh.

Total need for heating in cities, if floor area increase is taken into account
. 2007 2013 2020 2025 2030
. [GWh] [GWh] [GWh] [GWh] [GWh]
Helsinki 7 457,69 7859,143563 8327,503495 8662,046304 8996,589113
Vantaa 2 118,15 2312,119471 2538,421663 2700,066086 2861,710509
Espoo 2 661,25 2963,875142 3316,943568 3569,1353 3821,327033
Kauniainen 176,13 190,1070909 206,412201 218,0587083 229,7052155
Total 12 413,21 13 325,25 14 389,28 15 149,31 15 909,33

By taking global warming and building stocks improving energy efficiency into account, total need of thermal energy estimation for future years can be made more accurate. By YTV's estimations in 2025 473 GWh thermal energy is needed for warm tap water and 14 650 GWh for heating buildings. Finnish Meteorology Institute estimates that outdoor temperature will increase about 1 °C to year 2030 from year 2007. If then estimated that outdoor temperature is 0,7826 oC higher than it was in 2007, then the energy needed for heating buildings is 13 540 GWh in 2025.

NOTE! CLAIH-results will be more accurate for outdoor temperature estimations?

Buildings energy efficiencies are improving all the time and in 2010 law will require 30-40 % better overall heat transfer coefficients from buildings. If then estimated that all new buildings and renewed buildings will have 40 % better overall heat transfer coefficient than buildings in 2007, then thermal energy needed in Helsinki Metropolitan area in 2025 is 13 110 GWh. This would mean that each year total need of thermal energy increases 38,7 GWh in Helsinki Metropolitan area.

[2] [3]. [4]. [5]





  • Calculation is based on the method Heating consumption of buildings.
    • The method is expected to capture the vast majority of thermal energy needs in Helsinki Metropolitan Area. However, only building energy need is considered here. Because of the additional need of industry, the estimate should be considered a lower-bound estimate. The energy need of industry is not reported in Opasnet, but it is expected to be only a small fraction of that of buildings.
  • All the calculations made in excel table: File:Assessment of small-scale energy production in Helsinki Metropolitan Need of thermal energy calculations are found in worksheet named "need of thermal energy".


Total need of thermal energy 2007 2013 2020 2025 2030
. [GWh] [GWh] [GWh] [GWh] [GWh]
Helsinki 7 457,69 7477,097544 7499,737122 7515,908248 7532,079375
Vantaa 2 118,15 2194,713213 2284,041438 2347,847312 2411,653187
Espoo 2 661,25 2806,956036 2976,95217 3098,377981 3219,803792
Kauniainen 176,13 180,4435801 185,4745944 189,068176 192,6617576
TOTAL 12 413,21 12 659,21 12 946,21 13 110,50 13 356,20

See also


  1. Adato Energia Oy. 2008. District heating in Finland 2007. Kaukolämpötilastot 2007 (in Finnish)
  2. Helsingin Vesi. 2009. Water consumption in Helsinki area (in Finnish).
  3. Adato Energia Oy. 2008. District heating in Finland. Kaukolämpötilasto 2007
  4. Statistics of Finland. 2008. Building stock 2000 & 2007
  5. Helsinki metropolitan area Council. 2003. PKS tulevaisuudenkuva 2025 (in Finnish)