Risks and benefits related to consumption of vegetables

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To perform a benefit-risk assessment in order to find out what would be the effects of additional vitamins, either in form of fortified foods or vitamin supplements, to children having a low vegetable diet (low vegetable diet assumed to be a junk-food rich diet).



  • target age group: children 6 years
  • countries: Finland, Ireland, Denmark, and Spain
  • vitamins: A (beta-carotene), B6, C, D

expected/considered effects/impacts:

    • vitamin D overdose
    • vitamin A, B6, C, D deficiency
    • effects of sugar and fat in diet
    • life-long impacts: obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes

Time limits for case (agreed milestones/deliverables):

  • A summary table of the most important risks and benefits of vegetables vs. supplements and food fortification promised on month 18 (could this be replaced with the case research plan including the rationale behind scoping etc.?)
  • Final product (D40 Full benefit-risk analysis: vegetables) ready by month 34


  1. BAU (description current situation)
  2. vitamin addition(s) of given amount(s) to children belonging to low vegetable diet category

Intended users

possible target groups for using the information (prioritisation needed):

  • children's educators: school teachers, school health care personnel
  • public health care personnel
  • Parents of the children
  • decision-makers on vitamin supplement and food fortification regulations
  • food producers
  • vitamin supplement producers


Participating project members/person months:

  • KTL | 7
  • TUDelft | 0
  • FFiles | 0
  • FSAI | 1
  • DTU | 1
  • FVST | 0
  • Lendac | 0
  • FIN | 2
  • case study will be carried out openly (will be carried out on open website: http://en.opasnet.org)
  • any participants among the identified potential user groups to be invited?
  • any participants among the target group (children of age 6) to be invited?


Decision variables

  • Vitamin addition to a child's diet, either
    • in form of fortified foods (food fortification?)
    • in form of vitamin supplements


Other variables


  • Prioritisation on the most important effects and uncertainties will be done using value-of-information method and other techniques





Results of the analyses


See also