ERF for short term PM2.5 exposure and restricted activity days (RADs)

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Exposure-response function for short-term (acute) exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm and restricted activity days (RADs). RAD is defined as a day when a person needs to change his/her normal activities because of ill-health. It is based on surveys among general population. In terms of severity, RADs include: 1) days needed to stay in bed, 2) days of work/school (WLS) and 3) days of other, less serious restrictions on normal activity (MRADs).

Dimensions and boundaries relevant for the variable

  • Age of exposed population
  • Country/other geographic area



Ostro (1987) [1]

Restricted activity days (RADs) among adults aged 15-64:

  • 0.475% (95% Cl 0.417%, 0.533%) increase in RADs per 1 µg/m3 PM2.5
  • change of 902 RADs (95% Cl 792, 1013) per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5 per 1000 adults
    • Assumes a background rate of 19 RADs per person per year, equivalent to a prevelance of 5.2%[2]



Increase in no. of RADs per 10 µg/m3 increase in exposure per 1000 people aged 15-64



Age group RADs 95% Cl
15-64 902 792, 1013

See also


  1. Ostro BD (1987). Air pollution and morbidity revisited: a specification test. J Environ Econ Manage, 14: 87-98.
  2. ORNL/RFF (1994). Estimating Externalities of the Coal Fuel Cycle. Report 3 on the external costs and benefits of fuel cycles. A study by the US department of Energy and the Commission of the European Communities. Prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Resources for the Future. McGraw Hill.