ERF for short term PM2.5 exposure and minor restricted activity days (MRADs)

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Exposure-response function for short-term (acute) exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm and minor restricted activity days (MRADs). MRAD is defined as a day when a person needs to make minor restrictions to his/her normal daily activities because of ill-health. Minor refers to restrictions less severe than having to stay in bed or stay out work.

Dimensions and boundaries relevant for the variable

  • Age of exposed population
  • Country/other geographic area



Ostro & Rothschild (1989)[1]

Minor restricted activity days (MRADs) among adults aged 18-64:

  • 0.74% (95% Cl 0.60%, 0.88%) increase in MRADs per 1 µg/m3 PM2.5
  • change of 577 MRADs (95% Cl 468, 686) per 10 µg/m3 PM2.5 per year per 1000 adults
    • Assumes a background rate of 7.8 MRADs per person per year



Increase in no. of MRADs per 10 µg/m3 increase in exposure per 1000 people aged 18-64



Age group MRADs 95% Cl
15-64 577 468, 686

See also


  1. Ostro BD & Rothschild (1989). Air pollution and acute respiratory morbidity: an observational study of multiple pollutants. Environ Res, 50: 238-247.